Топ-100

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Sealed bottles

Sealed bottles have an applied glass seal on the shoulder or side of the bottle. The seal is a molten blob of glass that has been stamped with an embossed symbol, name or initials, and often it included a date. Collectors of bottles sometimes ref ...

                                               

Storage of wine

Storage of wine is an important consideration for wine that is being kept for long-term aging. While most wine is consumed within 24 hours of purchase, fine wines are often set aside for long-term storage. Wine is one of the few commodities that ...

                                               

Vinotemp

Vinotemp is a wine storage manufacturing company specializing in customization. It is a full-service manufacturer of wood wine cabinets, wine racking, wine cooling systems, and a distributor of appliance style wine cellars.

                                               

Wine Cellar Innovations

Wine Cellar Innovations is a wine cellar manufacturing company based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The company was founded by Jim Deckebach in 1984. They design, craft, and install commercial and residential wine cellars. As of 2017, they employed about 1 ...

                                               

Wine on tap

Wine on Tap is a distribution method for wine. Instead of distributing via the bottle, wine is housed in stainless steel kegs or disposable one-way kegs. After the barreling stage, the wine is transferred into the kegs holding about 27 bottles of ...

                                               

Collodion process

The collodion process is an early photographic process. The collodion process, mostly synonymous with the "collodion wet plate process", requires the photographic material to be coated, sensitized, exposed and developed within the span of about f ...

                                               

Cyanotype

Cyanotype is a photographic printing process that produces a cyan-blue print. Engineers used the process well into the 20th century as a simple and low-cost process to produce copies of drawings, referred to as blueprints. The process uses two ch ...

                                               

Digital negative (transparency)

The digital negative is the collective name for methods used by photographers to create negatives on transparency film for the contact printing of alternative photographic techniques. The negatives can also be enlarged using traditional gelatin s ...

                                               

Gum bichromate

Gum bichromate is a 19th-century photographic printing process based on the light sensitivity of dichromates. It is capable of rendering painterly images from photographic negatives. Gum printing is traditionally a multi-layered printing process, ...

                                               

Mordançage

Mordançage is an alternative photographic process that alters silver gelatin prints to give them a degraded effect. The mordançage solution works in two ways: it chemically bleaches the print so that it can be redeveloped, and it lifts the black ...

                                               

Physautotype

The physautotype was a photographic process, invented by Joseph Nicephore Niepce and Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre in 1832, in which images were produced by the use of lavender oil residue dissolved in alcohol as the photographic agent. The soluti ...

                                               

Platinum print

Platinum prints, also called platinotypes, are photographic prints made by a monochrome printing process involving platinum. Platinum tones range from warm black, to reddish brown, to expanded mid-tone grays that are unobtainable in silver prints ...

                                               

Salt print

The salt print was the dominant paper-based photographic process for producing positive prints from 1839 until approximately 1860. The salted paper technique was created in the mid-1830s by English scientist and inventor Henry Fox Talbot. He made ...

                                               

Tintype

A tintype, also known as a melainotype or ferrotype, is a photograph made by creating a direct positive on a thin sheet of metal coated with a dark lacquer or enamel and used as the support for the photographic emulsion. Tintypes enjoyed their wi ...

                                               

Chemistry of photolithography

Photolithography is a process in removing select portions of thin films used in microfabrication. Microfabrication is the production of parts on the micro- and nano- scale, typically on the surface of silicon wafers, for the production of integra ...

                                               

Electron-beam lithography

Electron-beam lithography is the practice of scanning a focused beam of electrons to draw custom shapes on a surface covered with an electron-sensitive film called a resist. The electron beam changes the solubility of the resist, enabling selecti ...

                                               

Extreme ultraviolet lithography

Extreme ultraviolet lithography is a lithography technology using a range of extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, roughly spanning a 2% FWHM bandwidth about 13.5 nm. While EUV technology is available for mass production, fewer than fifty machines wor ...

                                               

Immersion lithography

Immersion lithography is a photolithography resolution enhancement technique for manufacturing integrated circuits that replaces the usual air gap between the final lens and the wafer surface with a liquid medium that has a refractive index great ...

                                               

Interference lithography

Interference lithography is a technique for patterning regular arrays of fine features, without the use of complex optical systems or photomasks.

                                               

Local oxidation nanolithography

Local oxidation nanolithography is a tip-based nanofabrication method. It is based on the spatial confinement on an oxidation reaction under the sharp tip of an atomic force microscope. The first materials on which LON was demonstrated were Si111 ...

                                               

Magnetolithography

Magnetolithography is a method for pattern surfaces. ML based on applying a magnetic field on the substrate using paramagnetic metal masks named "magnetic mask". Magnetic masks are analogous to a photomask in photolithography, in that they define ...

                                               

Mask set

A mask set or a photomask set is a series of electronic data that define geometry for the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Each of the physical masks generated from this data is called a photomask. A mask set for a modern proc ...

                                               

Mask shop

A mask shop is a factory which manufactures photomasks for use in the semiconductor industry. There are two distinct types found in the trade. Captive mask shops are in-house operations owned by the biggest semiconductor corporations, while merch ...

                                               

Maskless lithography

Maskless lithography utilizes methods that directly transfer the information onto the substrate, without utilizing an intermediate static mask, i.e. photomask that is directly replicated. In microlithography typically radiation transfer casts an ...

                                               

Microcontact printing

Microcontact printing is a form of soft lithography that uses the relief patterns on a master polydimethylsiloxane stamp to form patterns of self-assembled monolayers of ink on the surface of a substrate through conformal contact as in the case o ...

                                               

Nanoimprint lithography

Nanoimprint lithography is a method of fabricating nanometer scale patterns. It is a simple nanolithography process with low cost, high throughput and high resolution. It creates patterns by mechanical deformation of imprint resist and subsequent ...

                                               

Nanolithography

Nanolithography is a growing field of techniques within nanotechnology dealing with the engineering of nanometer-scale structures. From Greek, the word can be broken up into three parts: "nano" meaning dwarf, "lith" meaning stone, and "graphy" me ...

                                               

Nanosphere lithography

Nanosphere lithography is an economical technique for generating single-layer hexagonally close packed or similar patterns of nanoscale features. Generally, NSL applies planar ordered arrays of nanometer-sized latex or silica spheres as lithograp ...

                                               

Next-generation lithography

Next-generation lithography or NGL is a term used in integrated circuit manufacturing to describe the lithography technologies slated to replace open air, visible light photolithography. As of 2016 the most advanced form of photolithography was i ...

                                               

Off-axis illumination

In photolithography, off-axis illumination is an optical system setup in which the incoming light strikes the photomask at an oblique angle rather than perpendicularly to it, that is to say, the incident light is not parallel to the axis of the o ...

                                               

Optical proximity correction

Optical proximity correction is a photolithography enhancement technique commonly used to compensate for image errors due to diffraction or process effects. The need for OPC is seen mainly in the making of semiconductor devices and is due to the ...

                                               

PDMS stamp

PDMS stamps are pieces of polydimethylsiloxane, a silicone, that have been patterned usually against a master to form a relief pattern used in soft lithography. This PDMS stamp can be used in either its current form as a relief surface for techni ...

                                               

Phase-shift mask

Phase-shift masks are photomasks that take advantage of the interference generated by phase differences to improve image resolution in photolithography. There exist alternating and attenuated phase shift masks. A phase-shift mask relies on the fa ...

                                               

Photoacid

Photoacids are molecules which become more acidic upon absorption of light. This is due either to the formation of strong acids upon photodissociation, or to the dissociation of protons upon photoassociation. There are two main types of molecules ...

                                               

Photolithography

Photolithography, also called optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts on a thin film or the bulk of a substrate. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a photosensit ...

                                               

Photomask

A photomask is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern. They are commonly used in photolithography.

                                               

Scanning probe lithography

Scanning probe lithography describes a set of nanolithographic methods to pattern material on the nanoscale using scanning probes. It is a direct-write, mask-less approach which bypasses the diffraction limit and can reach resolutions below 10 nm ...

                                               

Soft lithography

In technology, soft lithography is a family of techniques for fabricating or replicating structures using "elastomeric stamps, molds, and conformable photomasks". It is called "soft" because it uses elastomeric materials, most notably PDMS. Soft ...

                                               

Spacer patterning

Spacer patterning is a technique employed for patterning features with linewidths smaller than can be achieved by conventional lithography. In the most general sense, the spacer is a layer that is deposited over a pre-patterned feature, often cal ...

                                               

Stencil lithography

Stencil lithography is a novel method of fabricating nanometer scale patterns using nanostencils, stencils with nanometer size apertures. It is a resist-less, simple, parallel nanolithography process, and it does not involve any heat or chemical ...

                                               

Stepper

A stepper is a device used in the manufacture of integrated circuits that is similar in operation to a slide projector or a photographic enlarger. The term "stepper" is short for step-and-repeat camera. Steppers are an essential part of the compl ...

                                               

Thermal scanning probe lithography

Thermal scanning probe lithography is a form of scanning probe lithography whereby material is structured on the nanoscale using scanning probes, primarily through the application of thermal energy. Related fields are thermo-mechanical SPL see al ...

                                               

X-ray lithography

X-ray lithography, is a process used in electronic industry to selectively remove parts of a thin film. It uses X-rays to transfer a geometric pattern from a mask to a light-sensitive chemical photoresist, or simply "resist," on the substrate. A ...

                                               

C-41 process

C-41 is a chromogenic color print film developing process introduced by Kodak in 1972, superseding the C-22 process. C-41, also known as CN-16 by Fuji, CNK-4 by Konica, and AP-70 by AGFA, is the most popular film process in use, with most photofi ...

                                               

Cycolor

Cycolor is a tradename for a color printing process that uses a special film coated with millions of capsules filled with cyan, magenta, and yellow dyes, monomer, and photo-initiators. When exposed to red, green, and/or blue light, the contents o ...

                                               

E-6 process

The E-6 process is a chromogenic photographic process for developing Ektachrome, Fujichrome and other color reversal photographic film. Unlike some color reversal processes such as Kodachrome K-14 that produce positive transparencies, E-6 process ...

                                               

Ilfochrome

Ilfochrome is a dye destruction positive-to-positive photographic process used for the reproduction of film transparencies on photographic paper. The prints are made on a dimensionally stable polyester base as opposed to traditional paper base. S ...

                                               

Instant film

Instant film is a type of photographic film introduced by Polaroid to be used in an instant camera. The film contains the chemicals needed for developing and fixing the photograph, and the instant camera exposes and initiates the developing proce ...

                                               

Instax

Instax is a brand of instant still cameras and instant films marketed by Fujifilm. The first camera and accompanying film, the Instax Mini 10 and Instax Mini film, were released in 1998. The "Wide" film and first accompanying camera were released ...

                                               

K-14 process

K-14 was the most recent version of the developing process for Kodaks Kodachrome transparency film before its discontinuation. It superseded previous versions of the Kodachrome process used with older films. The K-14 process differed significantl ...