Топ-100

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Erlenmeyer–Plochl azlactone and amino-acid synthesis

The Erlenmeyer–Plochl azlactone and amino acid synthesis, named after Friedrich Gustav Carl Emil Erlenmeyer who partly discovered the reaction, is a series of chemical reactions which transform an N -acyl glycine to various other amino acids via ...

                                               

Eschenmoser fragmentation

The Eschenmoser fragmentation, first published in 1967, is the chemical reaction of α,β-epoxyketones with aryl sulfonylhydrazines to give alkynes and carbonyl compounds. The reaction is named after the Swiss chemist Albert Eschenmoser, who devise ...

                                               

Etard reaction

The Etard reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the direct oxidation of an aromatic or heterocyclic bound methyl group to an aldehyde using chromyl chloride. For example, toluene can be oxidized to benzaldehyde. It is named for the French ...

                                               

Evans–Saksena reduction

The Saksena–Evans reduction is a diastereoselective reduction of β-hydroxy ketones to the corresponding anti -dialcohols, employing the reagent tetramethylammonium triacetoxyborohydride 3). The reaction was first described by Anil K. Saksena in 1 ...

                                               

Evans–Tishchenko reaction

The Evans–Tishchenko reaction is the diastereoselective reduction of β-hydroxy ketones to the corresponding 1.3- anti diol monoesters. The reaction employs a Lewis acid, often samarium iodide, and an aldehyde. It was first described in 1990 by Da ...

                                               

Favorskii reaction

The Favorskii reaction is an organic chemistry reaction between an alkyne and a carbonyl group, under a basic condition. The reaction was discovered in the early 1900s by the Russian chemist Alexei Yevgrafovich Favorskii. When the carbonyl is an ...

                                               

Wallach degradation

The Favorskii rearrangement, named for the Russian chemist Alexei Yevgrafovich Favorskii, is most principally a rearrangement of cyclopropanones and α-halo ketones which leads to carboxylic acid derivatives. In the case of cyclic α-halo ketones, ...

                                               

Feist–Benary synthesis

The Feist–Benary synthesis is an organic reaction between α-halogen ketones and β-dicarbonyl compounds to produce substituted furan compounds. This condensation reaction is catalyzed by amines such as ammonia and pyridine. The first step in the r ...

                                               

Ferrier carbocyclization

The Ferrier carbocyclization is an organic reaction that was first reported by the carbohydrate chemist Robert J. Ferrier in 1979. It is a metal-mediated rearrangement of enol ether pyrans to cyclohexanones. Typically, this reaction is catalyzed ...

                                               

Ferrier rearrangement

The Ferrier rearrangement is an organic reaction that involves a nucleophilic substitution reaction combined with an allylic shift in a glycal. It was discovered by the carbohydrate chemist Robert J. Ferrier.

                                               

Fetizon oxidation

Fetizon oxidation is the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols utilizing the compound silver carbonate absorbed onto the surface of celite also known as Fetizons reagent first employed by Marcel Fetizon in 1968. It is a mild reagent, suitab ...

                                               

Finkelstein reaction

The Finkelstein reaction named after the German chemist Hans Finkelstein, is an S N 2 reaction that involves the exchange of one halogen atom for another. It is an equilibrium reaction, but the reaction can be driven to completion by exploiting t ...

                                               

Fischer–Hepp rearrangement

The Fischer–Hepp rearrangement is a rearrangement reaction in which an aromatic N-nitroso or nitrosamine converts to a carbon nitroso compound: This organic reaction was first described by the German chemist Otto Philipp Fischer 1852–1932 and Edu ...

                                               

Fleming–Tamao oxidation

The Fleming–Tamao oxidation, or Tamao–Kumada–Fleming oxidation, converts a carbon–silicon bond to a carbon–oxygen bond with a peroxy acid or hydrogen peroxide. Fleming–Tamao oxidation refers to two slightly different conditions developed concurre ...

                                               

Frater–Seebach alkylation

In organic chemistry, the Frater–Seebach alkylation is a diastereoselective alkylation of chiral beta-hydroxy esters using strong bases. The reaction was first published by Georg Frater in 1979; in 1980, Dieter Seebach reported about a similar re ...

                                               

Haworth Phenanthrene synthesis

The Friedel–Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877 to attach substituents to an aromatic ring. Friedel–Crafts reactions are of two main types: alkylation reactions and acylation reactions. Bo ...

                                               

Friedlander synthesis

The Friedlander synthesis is a chemical reaction of 2-aminobenzaldehydes with ketones to form quinoline derivatives. It is named after German chemist Paul Friedlander. This reaction has been catalyzed by trifluoroacetic acid, toluenesulfonic acid ...

                                               

Fries rearrangement

The Fries rearrangement, named for the German chemist Karl Theophil Fries, is a rearrangement reaction of a phenolic ester to a hydroxy aryl ketone by catalysis of Lewis acids. It involves migration of an acyl group of phenol ester to the aryl ri ...

                                               

Fritsch–Buttenberg–Wiechell rearrangement

The Fritsch–Buttenberg–Wiechell rearrangement, named for Paul Ernst Moritz Fritsch, Wilhelm Paul Buttenberg, and Heinrich G. Wiechell, is a chemical reaction whereby a 1.1-diaryl-2-bromo-alkene rearranges to a 1.2-diaryl-alkyne by reaction with a ...

                                               

Fukuyama coupling

The Fukuyama coupling is a coupling reaction taking place between a thioester and an organozinc halide in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The reaction product is a ketone. This reaction was discovered by Tohru Fukuyama et al. in 1998. Advan ...

                                               

Fukuyama indole synthesis

The Fukuyama indole synthesis is a versatile tin mediated chemical reaction that results in the formation of 2.3-disubstituted indoles. A practical one-pot reaction that can be useful for the creation of disubstituted indoles. Most commonly tribu ...

                                               

Gabriel synthesis

The Gabriel synthesis is a chemical reaction that transforms primary alkyl halides into primary amines. Traditionally, the reaction uses potassium phthalimide. The reaction is named after the German chemist Siegmund Gabriel. The Gabriel reaction ...

                                               

Gabriel–Colman rearrangement

The Gabriel–Colman rearrangement is the chemical reaction of a saccharin or phthalimido ester with a strong base, such as an alkoxide, to form substituted isoquinolines. This rearrangement, a ring expansion, is seen to be general if there is an e ...

                                               

Gassman indole synthesis

The Gassman indole synthesis is a series of chemical reactions used to synthesize substituted indoles by addition of an aniline and a ketone bearing a thioether substituent. This is a one-pot chemical reaction, and none of the intermediates are i ...

                                               

Gattermann reaction

The Gattermann reaction, is a chemical reaction in which aromatic compounds are formylated by a mixture of hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen chloride in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst such as AlCl 3. It is named for the German chemist Ludwig G ...

                                               

Gewald reaction

The Gewald reaction is an organic reaction involving the condensation of a ketone with a α-cyanoester in the presence of elemental sulfur and base to give a poly-substituted 2-amino-thiophene. The reaction is named after the German chemist Karl G ...

                                               

Gomberg–Bachmann reaction

The Gomberg–Bachmann reaction, named for the Russian-American chemist Moses Gomberg and the American chemist Werner Emmanuel Bachmann, is an aryl-aryl coupling reaction via a diazonium salt. The arene compound 1 here benzene is coupled with base ...

                                               

Grieco elimination

The Grieco elimination is an organic reaction describing the elimination reaction of an aliphatic primary alcohol through a selenide to a terminal alkene. It is named for Paul Grieco. The alcohol first reacts with o -nitrophenylselenocyanate and ...

                                               

Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, allyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone. This reaction is important for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds. The reacti ...

                                               

Grob fragmentation

In chemistry, a Grob fragmentation is an elimination reaction that breaks a neutral aliphatic chain into three fragments: a positive ion spanning atoms 1 and 2, an unsaturated neutral fragment spanning positions 3 and 4, and a negative ion compri ...

                                               

Guerbet reaction

The Guerbet reaction, named after Marcel Guerbet, is an organic reaction that converts a primary alcohol into its β-alkylated dimer alcohol with loss of one equivalent of water. The process is of interest because it converts simple inexpensive fe ...

                                               

Hajos–Parrish–Eder–Sauer–Wiechert reaction

The Hajos–Parrish–Eder–Sauer–Wiechert reaction in organic chemistry is a proline catalysed asymmetric aldol reaction. The reaction is named after its principal investigators, Zoltan Hajos others, from Hoffmann-La Roche and Schering AG. Discovered ...

                                               

Hammick reaction

The Hammick reaction, named after Dalziel Hammick, is a chemical reaction in which the thermal decarboxylation of α-picolinic acids in the presence of carbonyl compounds forms 2-pyridyl-carbinols. Using p -cymene as solvent has been shown to incr ...

                                               

Hantzsch pyridine synthesis

The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis or Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis is a multi-component organic reaction between an aldehyde such as formaldehyde, 2 equivalents of a β-keto ester such as ethyl acetoacetate and a nitrogen donor such as ammonium ...

                                               

Hass–Bender oxidation

In organic chemistry, the Hass–Bender oxidation is an organic oxidation reaction that converts benzyl halides into benzaldehydes using the sodium salt of 2-nitropropane as the oxidant. This name reaction is named for Henry B. Hass and Myron L. Be ...

                                               

Heck reaction

The Heck reaction is the chemical reaction of an unsaturated halide with an alkene in the presence of a base and a palladium catalyst to form a substituted alkene. It is named after Tsutomu Mizoroki and Richard F. Heck. Heck was awarded the 2010 ...

                                               

Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation

The Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation reaction halogenates carboxylic acids at the α carbon. The reaction is named after three chemists, the German chemists Carl Magnus von Hell and Jacob Volhard and the Russian chemist Nikolay Zelinsky. An exam ...

                                               

Henry reaction

The Henry reaction is a classic carbon–carbon bond formation reaction in organic chemistry. Discovered in 1895 by the Belgian chemist Louis Henry, it is the combination of a nitroalkane and an aldehyde or ketone in the presence of a base to form ...

                                               

Herz reaction

The Herz reaction, named after the chemist Richard Herz, is the chemical conversion of an aniline-derivative to a so-called Herz salt with disulfur dichloride, followed by hydrolysis of this Herz salt to the corresponding sodium thiolate:

                                               

Hexadehydro Diels–Alder reaction

In organic chemistry, the hexadehydro-Diels–Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction between a diyne and an alkyne to form a reactive benzyne species, via a cycloaddition mechanism. The HDDA reaction is particularly effective for forming he ...

                                               

Hiyama coupling

The Hiyama coupling is a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of organosilanes with organic halides used in organic chemistry to form carbon–carbon bonds. This reaction was discovered in 1988 by Tamejiro Hiyama and Yasuo Hatanaka as a meth ...

                                               

Hoesch reaction

The Hoesch reaction or Houben–Hoesch reaction is an organic reaction in which a nitrile reacts with an arene compound to form an aryl ketone. The reaction is a type of Friedel-Crafts acylation with hydrogen chloride and a Lewis acid catalyst. The ...

                                               

Hofmann elimination

Hofmann elimination, also known as exhaustive methylation. In this reaction, least stable alkene is formed, i.e., the one with least number of Alpha hydrogen. A process where a tertiary amine reacts to create a quaternary ammonium and an alkene b ...

                                               

Hofmann rearrangement

The Hofmann rearrangement is the organic reaction of a primary amide to a primary amine with one fewer carbon atom. The reaction is named after its discoverer – August Wilhelm von Hofmann. This reaction is also sometimes called the Hofmann degrad ...

                                               

Hofmann–Loffler reaction

The Hofmann–Loffler reaction is an organic reaction in which a cyclic amine 2 is generated by thermal or photochemical decomposition of N -halogenated amine 1 in the presence of a strong acid. The Hofmann–Loffler–Freytag reaction proceeds via an ...

                                               

Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction

The Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction is a chemical reaction used in organic chemistry of stabilized phosphonate carbanions with aldehydes to produce predominantly E-alkenes. In 1958, Leopold Horner published a modified Wittig reaction using phosp ...

                                               

Hummers method

Hummers method is a chemical process that can be used to generate graphite oxide through the addition of potassium permanganate to a solution of graphite, sodium nitrate, and sulfuric acid. It is commonly used by engineering and lab technicians a ...

                                               

Borodin reaction

The Hunsdiecker reaction is a name reaction in organic chemistry whereby silver salts of carboxylic acids react with a halogen to produce an organic halide. It is an example of both a decarboxylation and a halogenation reaction as the product has ...

                                               

Imine Diels–Alder reaction

Imines may be employed as dienophiles in hetero-Diels-Alder reactions. These reactions involve the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital LUMO of the imine, meaning that imines substituted with electron-withdrawing groups on nitrogen are the most re ...

                                               

Intramolecular Diels–Alder cycloaddition

In organic chemistry, an intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition is a Diels–Alder reaction in which the diene and a dienophile are both part of the same molecule. The reaction leads to the formation of the same cyclohexene-like structure as usua ...