ⓘ Gustation



The gustatory system or sense of taste is the sensory system that is partially responsible for the perception of taste. Taste is the perception produced or stimulated when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds in the oral cavity, mostly on the tongue. Taste, along with smell and trigeminal nerve stimulation, determines flavors of food and other substances. Humans have taste receptors on taste buds and other areas including the upper surface of the tongue and the epiglottis. The gustatory cortex is responsible for the perception of taste. ...


Acquired taste

An acquired taste is an appreciation for something unlikely to be enjoyed by a person who has not had substantial exposure to it. It is the opposite of innate taste which is appreciation for things that are obviously enjoyable by any person without prior exposure to them. In case of food and drink, the difficulty of enjoying the product may be due to a strong odor, taste, mouthfeel, appearance, or association.



Aftertaste is the taste intensity of a food or beverage that is perceived immediately after that food or beverage is removed from the mouth. The aftertastes of different foods and beverages can vary by intensity and over time, but the unifying feature of aftertaste is that it is perceived after a food or beverage is either swallowed or spat out. The neurobiological mechanisms of taste signal transduction from the taste receptors in the mouth to the brain have not yet been fully understood. However, the primary taste processing area located in the insula has been observed to be involved in ...



An astringent is a chemical that shrinks or constricts body tissues. The word derives from the Latin adstringere, which means "to bind fast". Calamine lotion, witch hazel, and yerba mansa, a Californian plant, are astringents. Astringency, the dry, puckering mouthfeel caused by the tannins in unripe fruits, lets the fruit mature by deterring eating. Ripe fruits and fruit parts including blackthorn sloe berries, Aronia chokeberry, chokecherry, bird cherry, rhubarb, quince and persimmon fruits, and banana skins are very astringent; citrus fruits, like lemons, are somewhat astringent. Tannins ...


Astringent (taste)

Astringent is a taste that puckers the mouth, numbs the tongue, and constricts the throat. This taste is caused by astringents such as tannins. The astringent taste is in unripened bananas, unripe persimmons and acorns dominantly, which prevents them from being eaten. It is also present in pomegranates, cranberries, crabapples, quinces as one among others, and in vegetables and beans as a secondary taste. It is also present in red meat, burnt and smoked food, and amla. Astringent foods are dry, cool, and heavy. Squirrels, wild boars, and insects can eat astringent food as their tongues are ...



Basic taste qualities like sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami serve specific functions in identifying food components found in the diet of humans and animals, and are recognized by proteins in the oral cavity. Recognition of bitter taste and aversion to it are thought to protect the organism against the ingestion of poisonous food compounds, which are often bitter. Bitter taste receptors are expressed not only in the mouth but also in extraoral tissues. BitterDB database, available at, includes over 670 compounds that were reported to taste bitter to humans. The compounds can be searched ...


Blind wine tasting

Blinded wine tasting is wine tasting undertaken in circumstances in which the tasters are kept unaware of the wines identities. The blind approach is routine for wine professionals who wish to ensure impartiality in the judgment of the quality of wine during wine competitions or in the evaluation of a sommelier for professional certification. More recently wine scientists have used blinded tastings to explore the objective parameters of the human olfactory system as they apply to the ability of wine drinkers to identify and characterize the extraordinary variety of compounds that contribut ...


Bliss point (food)

In the formulation of food products, the bliss point is the amount of an ingredient such as salt, sugar, or fat which optimizes deliciousness. Pioneering work on the bliss point was carried out by American market researcher and psychophysicist Howard Moskowitz, known for his successful work in product creation and optimization for foods ranging from spaghetti sauce to soft drinks. Moskowitz describes the bliss point as "that sensory profile where you like food the most." The bliss point for salt, sugar, or fat is a range within which perception is that there is neither too much nor too lit ...



Chemesthesis is defined as the chemical sensitivity of the skin and mucous membranes. Chemesthetic sensations arise when chemical compounds activate receptors associated with other senses that mediate pain, touch, and thermal perception. These chemical-induced reactions do not fit into the traditional sense categories of taste and smell. Examples of chemesthetic sensations include the burn-like irritation from capsaicin and related compounds in foods like chili peppers; the coolness of menthol in mouthwashes and topical analgesic creams; the stinging or tingling of carbonated beverages in ...



Chewiness is the mouthfeel sensation of labored chewing due to sustained, elastic resistance from the food. Foods typically considered chewy include caramel, rare steak, and chewing gum. Chewiness is empirically measured by the metrics of chew count and chew rate.


Coffee cupping

Coffee cupping, or coffee tasting, is the practice of observing the tastes and aromas of brewed coffee. It is a professional practice but can be done informally by anyone or by professionals known as "Q Graders". A standard coffee cupping procedure involves deeply sniffing the coffee, then loudly slurping the coffee so it spreads to the back of the tongue. The coffee taster attempts to measure aspects of the coffees taste, specifically the body, sweetness, acidity, flavour, and aftertaste. Since coffee beans embody telltale flavours from the region where they were grown, cuppers may attemp ...



Crunchiness is the sensation of muffled grinding of a foodstuff. Crunchiness differs from crispness in that a crisp item is quickly atomized, while a crunchy one offers sustained, granular resistance to jaw action. While crispness is difficult to maintain, crunchiness is difficult to overcome. Crunchy foods are associated with freshness.



Degustation is the careful, appreciative tasting of various food, focusing on the gustatory system, the senses, high culinary art and good company. Degustation is more likely to involve sampling small portions of all of a chefs signature dishes in one sitting. Usually consisting of eight or more courses, it may be accompanied by a matching wine degustation which complements each dish.



Dysgeusia, also known as parageusia, is a distortion of the sense of taste. Dysgeusia is also often associated with ageusia, which is the complete lack of taste, and hypogeusia, which is a decrease in taste sensitivity. An alteration in taste or smell may be a secondary process in various disease states, or it may be the primary symptom. The distortion in the sense of taste is the only symptom, and diagnosis is usually complicated since the sense of taste is tied together with other sensory systems. Common causes of dysgeusia include chemotherapy, asthma treatment with albuterol, and zinc ...



Electrogustometry is the measurement of taste threshold by passing controlled anodal current through the tongue. When current passes through the tongue a unique and distinct metallic taste is perceived. Electrogustometry has been in existence since the 1950s. However, not much research has been done in this field.


Electronic tongue

The electronic tongue is an instrument that measures and compares tastes. Chemical compounds responsible for taste are detected by human taste receptors, and the seven sensors of electronic instruments detect the same dissolved organic and inorganic compounds. Like human receptors, each sensor has a spectrum of reactions different from the other. The information given by each sensor is complementary and the combination of all sensors results generates a unique fingerprint. Most of the detection thresholds of sensors are similar to or better than those of human receptors. In the biological ...


Gustatory technology

Virtual taste refers to a taste experience generated by a digital taste simulator. Electrodes are used to simulate the taste and feel of real food in the mouth. In 2012 a team of researchers at the National University of Singapore developed the digital lollipop, an electronic device capable of transmitting four major taste sensations to the tongue. In 2016 the same team created a square with thermoelectric elements to simulate the sensation of sweetness through changes in temperature. If this system is implemented in mugs or drinking glasses, it could make low-sugar drinks taste sweeter he ...



KafBikh or KafBeex in Persianis a kind of traditional sweet in Khorasan in Iran specially in the city of Gonabad. In part of Iran there are some special classical traditions specially for the night of yalda. during this longest night in south Khorasan family are gathering to provide a kind of sweet called Kaf.


Monell Chemical Senses Center

The Monell Chemical Senses Center is a non-profit independent scientific institute located at the University City Science Center campus in Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania. Monell conducts and publishes interdisciplinary basic research on taste, smell, and chemesthesis.



Neurogastronomy is the study of flavor perception and the ways it affects cognition and memory. This interdisciplinary field is influenced by the psychology and neuroscience of sensation, learning, satiety, and decision making. Areas of interest include how olfaction contributes to flavor, food addiction and obesity, taste preferences, and the linguistics of communicating and identifying flavor. The term neurogastronomy was coined by neuroscientist Gordon M. Shepherd.



Palatability is the hedonic reward provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs. The palatability of a food or fluid, unlike its flavor or taste, varies with the state of an individual: it is lower after consumption and higher when deprived. It has increasingly been appreciated that this can create a hunger that is independent of homeostatic needs.



Pungency is the condition of having a strong, sharp smell or flavor that is often so strong that it is unpleasant. Pungency is the technical term used by scientists to refer to the characteristic of food commonly referred to as spiciness or hotness and sometimes heat, which is found in foods such as chili peppers. The term piquancy is sometimes applied to foods with a lower degree of pungency that are "agreeably stimulating to the palate." Examples of piquant food include mustard and curry.



A supertaster is a person who experiences the sense of taste with far greater intensity than average, with some studies showing an increased sensitivity to bitter tastes. It may be a cause of selective eating.



Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars. Sweet tastes are generally regarded as pleasurable, except when in excess. In addition to sugars like sucrose, many other chemical compounds are sweet, including aldehydes, ketones, and sugar alcohols. Some are sweet at very low concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes. Such non-sugar sweeteners include saccharin and aspartame. Other compounds, such as miraculin, may alter perception of sweetness itself. The perceived intensity of sugars and high-potency sweeteners, such as aspar ...


Taste confusion matrix

Taste Confusion Matrix is a method in which many compounds are tested at the same time. It is a study of human taste perception. It characterizes the quality of taste with identification patterns of some 10 stimuli which are analyzed.


Taste receptor

A taste receptor is a type of receptor which facilitates the sensation of taste. These receptors are of four types. When food or other substances enter the mouth, molecules interact with saliva and are bound to taste receptors in the oral cavity and other locations. Molecules which give a sensation of taste are considered "sapid". Taste receptors are divided into two families: Type 2, bitter, first characterized in 2000: In humans there are 25 known different bitter receptors, in cats there are 12, in chickens there are three, and in mice there are 35 known different bitter receptors. Type ...


Tastes like chicken

Tastes like chicken is a declaration used when trying to describe the flavor of an unusual food. The expression has been used so often in popular culture that it has become a cliche. As a result, the phrase is also sometimes used to provide incongruous humor, by being used to describe foods or situations where it has no real relevance.


Tasting room

A tasting room is a part of a winery or brewery, typically located on the premises of the winery or brewerys production facilities, at which guests may sample the winery or brewerys products. Originally an informal public relations outreach effort of wineries and breweries to encourage visitors and build brand awareness and loyalty by dispensing free wine, beer, whiskey, sake, etc., tasting rooms have increasingly become sophisticated profit centers of winery operations, earning money by charging tasting fees, selling products directly to consumers, signing new members to the winery or bre ...


Tea tasting

Tea tasting is the process in which a trained taster determines the quality of a particular tea. Due to climatic conditions, topography, manufacturing process, and different clones of the Camellia sinensis plant, the final product may have vastly differing flavours and appearance. These differences can be tasted by a trained taster in order to ascertain the quality prior to sale or possibly blending tea.


Tongue map

The tongue map or taste map is a common misconception that different sections of the tongue are exclusively responsible for different basic tastes. It is illustrated with a schematic map of the tongue, with certain parts of the tongue labeled for each taste. Although widely taught in schools, this has been scientifically disproven by later research; all taste sensations come from all regions of the tongue, although different parts are more sensitive to certain tastes.



Umami or savory taste is one of the five basic tastes. It has been described as savory and is characteristic of broths and cooked meats. People taste umami through taste receptors that typically respond to glutamates, which are widely present in meat broths and fermented products and commonly added to some foods in the form of monosodium glutamate MSG and others. Since umami has its own receptors rather than arising out of a combination of the traditionally recognized taste receptors, scientists now consider umami to be a distinct taste. Foods that have a strong umami flavor include broths ...


Warmed-over flavor

Warmed-over flavor is an unpleasant characteristic usually associated with meat which has been cooked and then refrigerated. The deterioration of meat flavor is most noticeable upon reheating. As cooking and subsequent refrigeration is the case with most convenience foods containing meat, it is a significant challenge to the processed food industry. The flavor is variously described as "rancid," "stale," and like "cardboard," and even compared to "damp dog hair." Warmed-over flavor is caused by the oxidative decomposition of lipids in the meat into chemicals which have an unpleasant taste ...


Wine tasting

Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. While the practice of wine tasting is as ancient as its production, a more formalized methodology has slowly become established from the 14th century onwards. Modern, professional wine tasters use a constantly evolving specialized terminology which is used to describe the range of perceived flavors, aromas and general characteristics of a wine. More informal, recreational tasting may use similar terminology, usually involving a much less analytical process for a more general, personal appreciation. Results that have surfaced t ...


ⓘ Gustation

  • This is a comprehensive discography of official recordings by Guster an American alternative band from Boston, Massachusetts. Do You Love Me? did not
  • Wonderful is the sixth studio album by the American alternative rock band Guster released on 5 October 2010, on Universal Republic. From 24 August to 18
  • Goldfly is the second studio album by the rock band Guster released in 1997. The album was recorded in December 1996 at the House of Blues Studios in
  • Look Alive is the eighth studio album by American alternative rock band Guster released on January 18, 2019. It is their first studio release since Evermotion
  • Lost and Gone Forever is the third studio album by the band Guster released in September 1999. It was recorded earlier that year in Sausalito, California
  • Ganging Up on the Sun is the fifth studio album by the rock band Guster It was released on June 20, 2006. The first single, Manifest Destiny was released
  • Gustave Gust Constantine Zarnas December 16, 1913 December 26, 2000 was a college football All - American and professional football player. He is distinguished
  • Sar Gust - e Bala Persian: سرگوست بالا also Romanized as Sar Gūst - e Bālā also known as Sar Gasht - e Olyā, Sargosk - e Bālā, Sar Gost, and Sar Gost - e Bālā
  • Gust J. Swenning 2 August 1917 1 December 1942 was an American sailor who served in the United States Navy and was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross
  • musician. He is the lead singer and guitarist for the alternative rock band Guster He also occasionally plays bass and piano. Ryan was born November 21, 1972
  • Sabine Jahn later Gust born 27 June 1953 is a German rower who competed for East Germany in the 1976 Summer Olympics. She was born in Neuruppin. She

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