★ Near-death experience
Near-death experience is a profound personal experiences associated with death or threat of death, which the researchers argue have similar characteristics. When positive, these experiences can include a variety of sensations including detachment from the body, feelings of levitation, serenity, security, warmth, the experience of absolute dissolution, and the presence of light. When negative, these experiences can include feelings of anguish and distress.
Explanations for ndes differ from the scientific to the religious. Research neuroscientists say that near-death experience is a subjective phenomenon, as a result of "disturbed bodily multisensory integration," which occurs in the course of life-threatening events, while some are transcendental, and religious ideas about the afterlife include descriptions of the same pad.
1. Etymology. (Этимология)
The French equivalent experience imminente de mort imminent death was proposed by the French psychologist and epistemologist Victor EGGER as a result of discussions in the 1890-ies among philosophers and psychologists concerning the history of the mountaineers panoramic life review during falls. In 1892 a number of subjective observations of the fall of the workers from the scaffolding, the war, the soldiers who have injured climbers who fell from a height or other persons who are close to death near drowning, accidents, reported by albert Heim. It was also the first time this phenomenon has been described as a clinical syndrome. In 1968 Celia green published an analysis of 400 first-hand about out of body experiences. This was the first attempt to give a systematization of such experience, be viewed simply as anomalous perceptual experiences, or hallucinations. In 1969 Swiss-American psychiatrist, pioneer in near-death studies, Elisabeth kübler-Ross published her groundbreaking book on death and dying: what the dying have to teach doctors, nurses, clergy and their families. These experiments were also popularized by the work of psychiatrist Raymond Moody who in 1975 coined the term "near death experience" test, but an umbrella term for different elements. The term "near death experience" was already used by John C. Lilly in 1972.
2. Features. (Особенности)
Clinical circumstances. (Клинические обстоятельства)
Kenneth Ring argues that attempted suicides do not lead more often to unpleasant pad than unintended near-death situations.
2.1. Features. Common elements. (Общие элементы)
Researchers have identified common elements that define near-death experiences. Bruce Greyson argues that the General features include impressions of being outside ones physical body, visions of deceased relatives and religious figures, and transcendence of egotic and spatiotemporal boundaries. Many common elements have been reported, although the person interpretation of these events often corresponds with the cultural, philosophical, or religious beliefs to the person experiencing it. For example, in the US, where 46% of the population believes in Guardian Angels, they will be identified as angels or deceased loved ones or to be determined, while the Hindus often identificeret them as the messengers of God of Death.
Common features, which have been registered NDErs as follows:
- A sense / awareness of being dead.
- Suddenly finding himself inside the body of them.
- Rapid movement toward and / or sudden immersion in a powerful light or "Light Beings", which communicate with the human.
- A sense of peace, well-being and painlessness. Positive emotions. The meaning of remove from the world.
- "Tunnel experience" or become dark. The feeling of moving up or through a corridor or staircase.
- The connection to the cultural beliefs of the individual, which seem to dictate some of the phenomena experienced in the diagnosis and especially by the later interpretation.
- Encountering "beings of Light", "beings in white", or the like. In addition, the opportunity to reunite with deceased loved ones.
- After receiving an overview of the life, commonly called "seeing life flash before eyes".
- Approaching the border or solutions oneself or others to return to the body, often accompanied by an unwillingness to return.
- Out-of-body experience. The perception of the body from an external position, sometimes watching the medical personnel performing the resuscitation efforts.
- An intense feeling of unconditional love and acceptance.
2.2. Features. Clinical circumstances. (Клинические обстоятельства)
Kenneth Ring argues that attempted suicides do not lead more often to unpleasant pad than unintended near-death situations.
2.3. Features. The consequences. (Последствия)
Pad is associated with changes in personality and Outlook on life. Ring has identified a consistent set of values and belief changes associated with people who had a near-death experience. Among these changes, he found greater satisfaction in life, increase self-esteem, greater compassion for others, less important to produce wealth, a heightened sense of purpose and self-understanding, desire to learn, elevated spirituality, the increase of ecological sensitivity and planetary concern, and a sense more understandable. However, not all the consequences are beneficial and Greyson describes circumstances where changes in attitudes and behavior can lead to psychological and psychospiritual problems.
3. Historical reports, incidence and prevalence. (Исторические отчеты, заболеваемость и распространенность)
Pad was recorded since ancient times. The oldest known medical report of near-death experiences was written by Pierre-Jean du Monchaux, an 18th century French military doctor, who described this case in his book "anecdotes de medicine". In the 19th century, several studies have gone beyond individual cases - privately made by the Mormons and one in Switzerland. Up to 2005, 95% of the worlds cultures it is known that to mention pad.
A number of more modern sources report the incidence on the border of life and death:
- 10-20% of people who were close to death.
- 17% among critically ill patients, in nine prospective studies from four different countries.
4.1. Research. Near-death studies. (Околосмертных исследований)
Bruce Greyson is a psychiatrist, psychologist Kenneth Ring, Michael sabom, a cardiologist, helped to launch the field of near-death studies and introduced the study of near-death experiences in an academic setting. From 1975 to 2005, about 2.500 self-esteem individuals in the United States were reviewed in retrospective studies of the phenomena with an additional 600 outside the US and the West, and 70 in Asia. In addition, a prospective study identified 270 people. Prospective study overview groups of individuals, for example, some emergency room patients, and then to find someone who had CCA at the time engaged in the study, such studies are more to perform. Overall, close to 3.500 individual cases between 1975 and 2005 were reviewed in a particular study. All these studies were conducted some 55 researchers or teams of researchers.
Melvin Morse, head of the Institute for the study of consciousness, and colleagues have investigated near-death experiences in a pediatric population.
4.2. Research. The Study Parnia 2001. (Исследование Парниа 2001)
In 2001, Sam Parnia and his colleagues published the results of a year-long study of survivors of cardiac arrest, which was carried out in General hospital in Southampton. 63 survivors were interviewed. They were resuscitated after clinical death, with no pulse, no respiration and fixed dilated pupils. Parnia and colleagues investigated out of body experience claims by placing figures on suspended boards facing the ceiling, not visible from the floor. Four had the experience that, according to the study criteria were pad but none of them have experienced an out of body experience. Thus, they are unable to identify numbers.
Psychologist Chris French wrote about the study "unfortunately, and somewhat atypically, none of the survivors in this sample experienced officer of the Order of the British Empire".
4.3. Research. Van Lommels Study. (Исследование Ван Lommels)
In 2001, PIM van Lommel, a cardiologist from the Netherlands, and his team conducted a study on the pad, including 344 patients of cardiac arrest who were successfully resuscitated in 10 Dutch hospitals. Patients reporting pad as a control was used for patients who did and psychological, for example, fear of cardiac arrest, demographic, medical, for example, more than one cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR) and pharmacological data were compared between the two groups. This work also included a longitudinal study where two groups those who had a near-death experience, and those who had one were compared on two and eight years, to change lives. One patient had a normal out-of-body experience. He reported being able to recall events during his heart attack. His allegations were supported by hospital staff. "This is not in accordance with the hallucinatory or illusory experiences as memories was compatible with real and verifiable, not imaginary events."
4.4. Research. Awareness during resuscitation study course. (Осознание в ходе изучения курса реанимации)
While at the University of Southampton, Parnia was the principal investigator of the study, which was released in 2008. In the study, which concluded in 2012 included 33 investigators at 15 medical centres in the UK, Austria and the USA and tested consciousness, memories and consciousness during cardiac arrest. The accuracy of claims of visual and auditory perception have been studied with the help of special tests. One such test was to install shelves carrying a variety of pictures and face to the ceiling, hence not visible by the staff of the hospital rooms where cardiac-arrest patients were more likely to occur. The results of the study were published in October 2014, as the launch and the results of the study were widely discussed in the media.
A review article analyzing the results of reports that, from 2.060 events cardiac arrest, 101 of the 140 survivors of cardiac arrest may fill out the questionnaire. Of these, 101 patients 9% can be classified as near death experience. Two patients 2% of those completing the questionnaires described "seeing and hearing actual events related to the period from the stop of the heart." These two patients of cardiac arrest does not occur in areas equipped with ceiling shelves, therefore, no images can be used to objectively test the claims of visual awareness. One of the two patients were too ill, and the accuracy of its recount could not be verified. For the second patient, however, it was possible to verify the accuracy of the experience and to show that understanding has occurred, paradoxically, a few minutes after the heart stopped, in a time when "the brain usually stops working and the brain activity becomes isoelectric." This experience was not working with illusion, an imaginary event or a hallucination, because visually in addition to ceiling shelves images and auditory perception, may be confirmed.
4.5. Research. KNOW SECOND. (ЗНАЮ, ЧТО ВТОРОЙ)
In may 2016, an entry in the UK clinical trials gateway website told about the plans on the course of the second, two-year multicenter observational study of 900-1500 patients experiencing cardiac arrest, which says that subject recruitment began on 1 August 2014 that the planned end date-may 31, 2017. The study was expanded, and currently expected to end in 2020.
4.6. Research. Meditation-Induced Pad. (Медитация-Индуцированной Коврик)
Three-year longitudinal study showed that some Buddhist meditation practices are able to consciously induce near-death experiences in a pre-scheduled time. Unlike traditional pad, the participants are aware of the experience of meditation-induced nde and to maintain control over its content and duration. The Dalai Lama also asserted that experienced meditators may deliberately cause a condition close to death, during meditation, being able to recognize and support it.
5. Explanatory models. (Объяснительные модели)
In a review article, psychologist Chris French has grouped approaches to the explanation of ndes into three broad groups, which "are not separate and independent, but instead show considerable overlap": the spiritual theory, also called the spiritual, psychological theory and physiological theory, which give a physical explanation for ndes.
5.1. Explanatory models. Spiritual or transcendental theory. (Духовной или трансцендентной теории)
French summarizes this model, saying: "the most popular interpretation is that the rear is exactly what appears to a person having the experience." Then the rear will be to present evidence of the alleged intangible, the existence of a soul or consciousness that leaves the body after death. Then NK will be presented information about the intangible world, where the souls journey on the termination of his physical existence on earth.
According to Grayson ND some phenomena cannot be easily explained with modern knowledge of physiology and human psychology. For example, at a time when they were unconscious patients can accurately describe events, and to provide the opportunity to view their bodies "from the body of a spatial perspective". In two different studies of patients who suffered a heart attack, those who reported leaving their bodies could accurately describe their resuscitation procedures or unexpected events, while other "described incorrect equipment and procedures". Sam Parnia also refers to two studies of cardiovascular diseases and one of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest study in which patients reported visual and / or auditory perception occurs when the brain function has ceased. These reports "was supported by actual and real events."
Five prospective studies were conducted to check the accuracy of body perception by placing "unusual targets in places likely to be seen persons with pad, for example in the upper corner of the room in the emergency Department, coronary care unit or intensive care unit of the hospital." Twelve patients reported that they leave their bodies, but none could describe the hidden visual targets. Although this is a small sample, refusal, ostensibly because of the survivor to describe the hidden target raises questions about the accuracy of the anecdotal reports described above. One of the studies that have been conducted this kind of hidden target test protocols explanation as to why objectives have not been seen by the patients:
- One patient reported that he was too focused on the monitoring body to look for any purpose. In addition, he argues that he could see them, if she told him to look for them.
- Some patients were floating slightly above the body, thus, not high enough to see the targets.
- Some patients floated in the opposite direction of the target.
Psychologist James Alcock has described the claims of the afterlife and nde researchers as pseudoscientific. Alcock wrote a spiritual or transcendental interpretation of the "based on belief in search of data, not an observation in search of explanation." Chris France said that "the approach of the survivalist does not appear to generate clear and testable hypotheses. Because of the vagueness and inaccuracies in the account of the preppers, it can be done to ensure that any possible set of results and therefore cannot be falsified and unscientific".
Medical researcher penny Sartori notes that people close to the time of death was to see dead people and communicate with them. This is a very common fact and it is known that the lactating. It tells the story of one patient who was seen three dead relatives, the two of them, he knew they were dead, but one of them died a week before the event and he was not aware of.
5.2. Explanatory models. Psychological explanations. (Психологические объяснения)
French summarizes the main psychological explanations, which include: depersonalization, duration and model of dissociation.
5.3. Explanatory models. Model of depersonalization. (Модель обезличивания)
The depersonalization model was proposed in the 1970s he was a Professor of psychiatry Russell Noyes and clinical psychologist Roy Kletti, who suggested that the posterior is a form of depersonalization experienced during emotional States, such as life-threatening danger potentially imminent danger, and the fact that swaps can best be understood as a hallucination. According to this model, those who are facing their imminent death to be separated from the environment and ones own body, ceased to feel emotions, and experience time distortion.
This model has limitations to explain ndes for subjects who do not experience the sensation of being outside your body, unlike the pad, the experience is fabulous, unpleasant and is characterized by "anxiety, panic and emptiness". In addition, within pad subjects remain fully conscious, their personality, their sense of identity is not changed in contrast to those who are experiencing depersonalization.
5.4. Explanatory models. Model duration. (Модель продолжительность)
Another psychological theory called the model duration. It has been suggested that although these experiences might appear very real, they are actually constructed in the mind, consciously or unconsciously, in response to the stress of meeting with death or perceived encounter with death, and do not correspond to a real event. Thus, they look for fulfillment of desires: after all, someone thought they were going to die, they have experienced certain things in accordance with what they expected or wanted to occur. Imagining Paradise was, in fact, a way for them to calm yourself through the stress, knowing that they were close to death. Actors use their personal and cultural expectations imagine a situation that would protect them from imminent threats to their lives.
Objects often differed from their "religious and personal expectations of death," which contradicts the condition that they can imagine a scenario based on their cultural and personal background.
Although the term inspection was first introduced in 1975, and experience first described, the latter descriptions of BDBA is not different from those reported earlier than 1975. The only exception is the more frequent description of the tunnel. Therefore, that information about these experiences can be more easily obtained after 1975, did not affect reports of peoples experience.
Another disadvantage of this model can be found in childrens accounts of BDBA. They are similar to adults, despite the children, less influenced by religious or cultural influences on death.
5.5. Explanatory models. A model of the birth. (Модель рождения)
Model of birth assumes that death can be a form of experiencing birth injuries. As the child leaves the darkness of the womb to the light and are greeted with love and warmth for the elderly and medical staff, and so, it was suggested that a dying brain can recreate the passage through the tunnel to the light, warmth and love.
The reports leaves the body through the tunnel, with the same frequency among subjects who were born by caesarean section and natural childbirth. Furthermore, newborns do not have the "visual acuity, spatial stability of the visual images, mental alertness, and cortical coding capacity to register memory of the birth experience".
5.6. Explanatory models. Physiological explanation of the theory of organic. (Физиологическое объяснение теории органических)
A wide range of physiological theories back have been put forward, including cerebral hypoxia and hypercapnia, endorphins and other neurotransmitters, and abnormal activity in the temporal lobes.
Neurobiological factors in the experience have been investigated by specialists in the field of medicine and psychiatry. Among researchers and commentators who tend to emphasize a naturalistic and neurological base for the experience are the British psychologist Susan Blackmore in 1993, her "dying brain hypothesis".
5.7. Explanatory models. Neuroanatomical models. (Модели нейроанатомической)
Neuroscientists Olaf Letterhead and Sebastian Dieguez 2009, from the Federal Polytechnic school of Lausanne, Switzerland, proposed a model of the brain based on two types of pad:
- "type 1 pad due to bilateral frontal and occipital, but predominantly right hemispheric brain damage affecting the right temporal parietal node and is characterized by out-of-body experiences, altered time sense, sensation of flight, ease causero and flight".
- "type 2 pad also due to bilateral frontal and occipital, but predominantly left hemisphere brain damage to the left temporal parietal node and are characterized by a sense of presence, meeting and communicating with spirits, sees luminous bodies, and voices, sounds and music without causehe".
They suggest that damage to bilateral occipital cortex may lead to dysfunction of the pad such as seeing a tunnel or lights, and "the damage is unilateral or bilateral temporal lobe structures such as the hippocampus and the amygdala" may lead to emotional experiences, memories, or life review. They came to the conclusion that the future of neuroscientific research can identify the neuroanatomical basis of nondestructive testing that will lead to the dispersion of the subject, no paranormal explanations.
The Frenchman wrote that "the temporal will almost certainly participate in pad, given that both damage to and direct cortical stimulation of this region is known to produce a number of experiences corresponding to nondestructive testing, including OBEs, hallucinations, memory and memories."
Vanhaudenhuyse et al. 2009 reported that a recent study using deep brain stimulation and neuroimaging have demonstrated that out-of-body experience is due to a lack of multisensory integration in the temporo-parietal junction, and that current studies aimed at identifying the functional neuroanatomy of near-death experiences by means of standard EEG recordings.
According to Grayson several neuroanatomical models have been proposed, where the ZPA is assumed to come from different anatomical areas of the brain, namely the limbic system, the hippocampus, the left temporal lobe, Reissens fiber in the Central canal of the spinal cord, prefrontal cerebral cortex, right temporal lobe.
Blank et al. to recognize that their model remains speculative, the lack of data. Grayson also writes that although some of the proposed neuroanatomical models can explain ndes and ways through which they are expressed, they remain hypothetical at this stage because they have not been tested in empirical research.
5.8. Explanatory models. Neurochemical models. (Нейрохимические модели)
Some theories suggest that used during resuscitation induced pad, such as drugs, ketamine or as a result of endogenous chemicals which transmit signals between brain cells, neurotransmitters:
- In the early eighties, Daniel Carr wrote that the rear flange has characteristics that are typical for the syndrome, the limbic lobe and the rear can be explained by the release of endorphins and enkephalins in the brain. Endorphins are endogenous molecules ", released in times of stress and lead to reduced pain perception, and pleasant, even blissful, emotional state.".
- Morse et al. 1989 proposed a model arguing that serotonin plays a more important role than endorphins in the creation of the ZPA". at least in relation to mystical hallucinations and OBEs".
- Judson and Wiltshaw 1983 noted that the administration of endorphin-blocking agents such as naloxone was sometimes "hell" pad. This would be consistent with the role of endorphins as a result of "positive emotional tone of most of the ZPA".
According to Parnia, the neurochemical model is not supported by the data. This is true for "activation of NMDA receptors, serotonin and endorphin release" model. Parnia writes that the data has been collected through careful and thorough experimentation in the back "possible causality or even an Association" between neurochemical agents and nde experience.
5.9. Explanatory models. Multi-factor models. (Многофакторные модели)
The first formal neurobiological model for non-destructive testing included endorphins, neurotransmitters of the limbic system, temporal lobe and other parts of the brain. Extensions and variations of their model came from Other scientists, such as Louis Appleby 1989.
Other authors suggest that all components of near-death experiences can be explained in their entirety, through psychological or neurophysiological mechanisms, although the authors acknowledge that these hypotheses should be tested by science.
5.10. Explanatory models. Low oxygen levels and model G-Lok. (Низкий уровень кислорода и модель G-Лок)
The low level of oxygen in the blood hypoxia or anoxia, the assumption is made to cause hallucinations and, therefore, may explain pad. This is because low oxygen levels characterize life-threatening situations, but also clear similarities between the pad and overload loss of consciousness fainting episodes.
These episodes are fighter pilots who experience very rapid and intense acceleration, as a result of insufficient blood supply of the brain. Whinnery studied nearly 1.000 cases, and noted that the experiences often involved "tunnel vision and bright lights, floating sensations, automatic movement, autoscopy, the officers, not wishing to be disturbed, paralysis, vivid dreamlets of beautiful places, pleasurable sensations, psychological changes of euphoria and dissociation, inclusion of friends and family, inclusion of prior memories, thoughts, experience was very memorable when it can be remembered, confabulation, and a strong desire to understand the experience."
However, hypoxia-induced acceleration of the main characteristics of the "rhythmic jerking of the extremities, impaired memory of events immediately before loss of consciousness, tingling of the limbs.", what is not observed in pad. Also the fainting episodes are not reviews life, mystical experiences and "long-term transformational consequences," though this may be due to the fact that subjects have no expectation of death.
In addition, hypoxic hallucinations characterized by "distress and agitation," and this is very different from suicide what topics the report as something pleasant.
5.11. Explanatory models. A modified model of the levels of blood gases. (Модифицированная модель уровней газов крови)
Some researchers have studied whether hypercarbia or higher than normal levels of carbon dioxide, could explain the appearance of pad. However, studies are difficult to interpret with pad is observed at elevated levels as well as reducing the level of carbon dioxide, and, finally, some other studies found pad when the levels are not changed, and little data.
5.12. Explanatory models. Other models. (Другие модели)
French said that at least some of the messages on the pad may be based on false memories.
According to Engmann 2008 near-death experiences of people who are clinically dead are psychopathological symptoms caused by a serious malfunction of the brain as a result of cessation of cerebral circulation. An important question is whether we can "translate" a blooming experience the reanimated survivors into psychopathologically basic phenomena, e.g. acoasms non-verbal auditory hallucinations, Central narrowing of the visual field, autoscopia, visual hallucinations, activation of limbic and memory structures according to Moodys stages. The symptoms suppose a primary pain in the occipital and temporal cortex when clinical death. This basis could be congruent with the thesis pathoclisis - the inclination of special parts of the brain to be the first to be damaged in the event of sickness, lack of oxygen, or malnutrition - established eighty years ago by cécile and Oskar Vogt.
Professor of neurology Terence Hines, 2003 argued that near-death experiences are hallucinations caused by cerebral anoxia, drugs, or brain damage.
6. Cross-cultural aspects. (Кросс-культурные аспекты)
Gregory Shushan has published an analysis of the afterlife beliefs of five ancient civilizations and compare them with historical and contemporary reports of near-death experiences, the afterlife and shamanic "journeys." Shushan found similarities in time, place and culture, which he found could not be explained by coincidence, he also found the elements of the characteristic cultures, Shushan concludes that some forms of interaction the experience of the afterlife and culture probably have an impact on each other and that this heritage, in turn, affect the individual pad. In contrast, it was suggested that near-death experiences and many of their elements are closely associated with religious and spiritual traditions of the West. It was mainly the Christian seers, spiritualists, occultists and Theosophists of the 19th and 20th century that informs them Schlieter 2018.
According to Parnia, near death experiences of interpretation under the influence of religious, social, and cultural characteristics. Nevertheless, the main elements seem to have no boundaries and can be considered universal. In fact, some of these key elements has reported children
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- death As a result of these experiences she began researching near - death experiences culminating in the publication of her monograph The Near - Death
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