★ Apparent death
Apparent death, colloquially known as playing dead, playing dead, or pretending to be, is a behaviour in which animals take on the appearance of death. This form of animal deception is an adaptive behavior also known as tonic immobility or thanatosis. Fake deaths can be used as a defense mechanism or as a form of aggressive mimicry, and occurs in a wide range of animals.
When human-caused, the state is sometimes colloquially known as animal hypnosis. According to Gilman et al. the investigation of the "animal hypnosis" refers to the year 1646 in a report to Athanasius Kircher.
1. Tonic immobility. (Тоническая неподвижность)
Tonic immobility Ti is a behavior in which some animals become, apparently, was temporarily paralyzed and does not respond to external stimuli. In most cases, this occurs in response to extreme threat, for example, being captured and perceived by the predator. However, the sharks are demonstrating the behavior that some scientists attribute it to a mate, claiming that biting by the male holds the female and thus facilitates mating.
Despite appearances, the animal remains conscious during tonic immobility. Evidence of this includes rare sympathetic movement, scanning the environment and animals etc and often the use of possibilities of escape.
1.1. Tonic immobility. In bony fishes. (У костистых рыб)
Goldfish, trout, Rudd, tench, brown bullhead, decides, Paradise fish, and topminnow has not been received will fall off when they are restrained on their backs. Oscar seems to fall into a state of shock when they experience stress when the aquarium is cleaned, for example: they lie on the side, stop moving their fins, begins to breathe more slowly and deeply, and lose color. Similar behavior were reported on the convicts feet in the area.
1.2. Tonic immobility. In reptiles. (В рептилии)
Tonic immobility can be induced reliably in iguanas by a combination of inversion, restraint and moderate pressure. During the year, there are obvious changes in breathing and reduction of respiratory rate, rhythm becomes irregular, and the value of unstable. Over a long period of ti does not seem to be compatible with the hypothesis of fear but could be the result of a period of cortical depression because of the increase of the brain stem.
Tonic immobility can also be induced in the Carolina anolis. The characteristics of this ti vary depending on the duration and conditions of detention in captivity.
1.3. Tonic immobility. In rabbits. (В кроликов)
In 2006, one study in rabbits tried to find a connection between fear motivated stress state and some physiological response called the tonic immobility. The researchers observed an increase in heart rate and breathing immediately following periods of tonic immobility, and while they include the expected physiological response to a sudden change in the position data, however, was used to promote the conclusion that despite the emergence of deep relaxation, rabbits really fearing for his life. During the study, found out why the rabbits seem to enjoy the self-induction of the tonic immobility and sometimes sleeps on his back, he is now often cited to support the notion that rabbits really hate the fact that they appear to enjoy. The researchers made the opportunity for the induction of tonic immobility in rabbits as appropriate for specific veterinary procedures, as it holds less risk than anesthesia.
1.4. Tonic immobility. Ducks. (Утки)
Tonic immobility was seen in some species of ducks.
1.5. Tonic immobility. People. (Люди)
Tonic immobility has been hypothesized to occur in people who have suffered severe trauma, including sexual violence.
There is also a growing body of evidence that indicates the positive contribution of tonic immobility in the functioning of a person. Thus, defensive immobilization, as expected, played an important role in the evolution of human parent-child attachment, constant attention and suggestibility, in REM sleep, along with theories of consciousness.
1.6. Tonic immobility. As a research tool
Tonic immobility is a fear-potentiated response induced by physical restraint and characterised by reduced reaction to external stimulation. It was used as a criterion for assessing animal welfare, particularly hens, since 1970. The rationale for the ti test is that the experimenter simulates a predator thereby causing vs Predator response. The commandment is that the sacrifice of the animal pretends to be dead to be able to escape when / if the predator relaxes its concentration. Death feigning birds often take advantage of escape, ti in Quail reduces the probability of birds being eaten by cats.
To induce tonic immobility, the animal is gently restrained on its side or back for a period of time, for example 15 seconds. This is done either on a solid, flat surface or sometimes in a specially constructed as V - or U-shaped restraining cradle. In rodents, the answer is sometimes caused by additionally pinching or attaching a clamp to the skin at the neck. Scientists record behaviours such as the number of inductions 15-second restrictive period necessary for the animals to stay in place, the delay of the first major movements often Cycling leg movements, latency to first head or eye movement and duration of immobility, sometimes called restorative time.
Tonic immobility has been used to show that hens in cages are more terrible than those in pens, hens on the top tier of tiered battery cages are more terrible than those at lower levels, the CSD is done by hand are more fearful than hens carried on a mechanical conveyor, and chickens is more than transport times more terrible than those undergoing transport of a shorter duration.
Tonic immobility as a scientific tool is also used with mice, gerbils, Guinea pigs, rats, rabbits and pigs.
In animal behaviour, thanatosis θανάτωσις from the Greek noun, which means "ready to die", cf.: Thanatos is the process by which an animal feigns death in order to avoid unwanted attention. This can be for various reasons, for example, birds of prey evading a predator, the male tried to mate with a female, or a predator trying to lure the potential victim close. The French biologist Georges Pasteur klassificeret it as a form of self-mimesis, a form of camouflage and mimicry, in which the "mimic" imitates itself in a dead state.
2.1. Thanatosis For the defense. (Для обороны)
For defensive purposes, thanatosis depends on his pursuers becomes indifferent to his victim, as most predators only catch live prey.
In beetles, artificial selection experiments have shown that genetic variation for length of death-dramatization. Those selected for longer death-feigning durations in the selective advantage of the more short term the introduction of the predator, which suggests that thanatosis is indeed adaptive.
In a pig nose snakes, threatened individual rolls onto his back and appears to be dead when threatened by a predator, and foul-smelling, volatile fluid oozes from its body. Predators such as cats, then lose interest in the snake, which looks and smells dead. One of the reasons for losing interest is that rotten smelling animals to avoid as measures against infectious diseases, so the snake, in this case, exploiting that reaction. The newly hatched young also instinctively show this behaviour when rats try to eat them.
In mammals, the Virginia opossum is perhaps the best known example of defensive thanatosis. "Playing possum" is an idiomatic expression that means "pretending to be dead." It comes from the characteristics of the Virginia opossum, which is famous for pretending to be dead in case of danger. This instinct does not always pay off in the modern world, for example, opossums scavenging Roadkill may use it in response to the threat posed by oncoming traffic, and then end up as Roadkill themselves.
The usual recommendation for people trying to survive the attack of the brown bear to lie face down, cover the face with hands / arms / elbows, and pretend to be dead, lets hope that the bear will get bored and leave after a while.
"Playing possum" can also mean simply pretending to be injured, unconscious, asleep or otherwise vulnerable, often to lure the enemy into a vulnerable position him-or herself.
Thanatosis can also be observed in some invertebrates, such as wasps Nasonia vitripennis, and the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.
2.2. Thanatosis For reproduction. (Для размножения)
In the species Pisaura mirabilis spiders that male spiders often stage elaborate rituals of gift-giving and thanatosis to avoid getting eaten by female spiders during mating. Studies have shown higher chances of success in mating with females for males who exhibit death-feigning more frequently than men who do it less.
2.3. Thanatosis For predation. (Для хищничества)
Nimbochromis sleeper cichlids, endemic to lake Malawi in East Africa, large predatory fish, which thanatosis is a form of aggressive mimicry. This fish will lie on its side on the bottom sediments and assume a mottled color. Scavengers, attracted by what seems to be a dead fish approach a predator to investigate. N. livingstoni then abandons pretense, again to control himself and eats a garbage man, unfortunately, too close. A similar strategy is observed in the African cichlid Lamprologus lemairii, from lake Tanganyika and in Central America yellow hornet cichlid Parachromis friedrichsthalii.
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