★ Philosophy of suicide
In ethics and other branches of philosophy, suicide poses difficult questions, answered differently by different philosophers. French essayist, writer and playwright albert Camus began his philosophical essay "the Myth of Sisyphus" with the famous line "There is only one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide".
1. The arguments against suicide. (Аргументы против самоубийства)
Common philosophical opinion of suicide after the upgrade reflects the expansion in the cultural beliefs of Western society that suicide is immoral and unethical. One popular argument is that many of the reasons for committing suicide - such as depression, emotional pain, or economic hardship - are transitory and can be mitigated through therapy and through making changes to some aspects of life. A common proverb in discourse around suicide prevention sums up this view: "suicide is a permanent solution to a temporary problem". However, the argument against this is that while emotional pain may seem transitory to most people, and in many cases, in other cases it may be extremely difficult or even impossible to resolve, even through counseling or lifestyle change, depending on the severity of the disease and individuals ability to cope with their pain. Examples of this are incurable disease or mental illness throughout life.
1.1. The arguments against suicide. Absurdism. (Абсурдизм)
The French Algerian absurdist philosopher albert Camus saw the goal of absurdism in establishing whether suicide is a necessary response to a world that seems to be mute on the question of gods existence and thus what such an existence might answer our quest for meaning and purpose in the world. For Camus, suicide is the rejection of freedom. He believes that fleeing from the absurdity of reality into illusions, religion or death is not an option. Instead of fleeing the absurd meaninglessness of life, we must take passionately of life.
Existentialist Sartre describes the position of Meursault, the protagonist of Camuss the Outsider, who is sentenced to death, as follows:
"The absurd man will not commit suicide, he wants to live, without relinquishing any of his certainty, without a future, without hope, without illusions. and without resignation either. He looks at death with a passionate attention, and this fascination did not release him. He experiences the "divine irresponsibility" of the condemned".
1.2. The arguments against suicide. Christian philosophy. (Христианская философия)
G. K. Chesterton calls suicide "the ultimate and absolute evil, the refusal to exist." He claims that the man who kills himself, as far as he is concerned, destroys the entire world, apparently, just repeating the view of Maimonides.
1.3. The arguments against suicide. Liberalism. (Либерализм)
John Stuart mill argued, in his influential essay "On liberty" that, as a precondition of liberty is the power of the individual to make a choice, any choice that can be done that would make it impossible to make further decisions must be prevented. Thus, for mill, selling themselves into slavery must be prevented in order to avoid precluding the possibility of further choices. Concerning these matters, mill writes In On liberty
Not only persons are not bound, which violates the rights of third parties, but it is sometimes a ground for excluding them from the obligation which he harms himself. In this and most other civilized countries, for example, on the engagement on which the person should sell himself, or allow himself to be sold as a slave, would be null and void, neither by law nor by opinion. The basis for the most limiting his power of voluntarily disposing of his own life, obviously, and is very clearly seen in this extreme case. The reason for not interfering, unless for the sake of others, with those voluntary acts, consideration of their freedom. His voluntary choice is evidence that what he so chooses is desirable, or at least tolerant, with him, and his good on the whole best provided for by allowing him to take his own means of it. But by selling himself into slavery he renounces his freedom, he refrains from any further use, except that one act. So he wins in his own case, the very purpose which is justification of allowing him to dispose of himself. He is not free, but since in this position, which is not a presumption in his favor that would have given his voluntarily remaining in it. The principle of freedom cannot require that he should be free not to be free. This is not freedom, to be allowed to alienate his freedom.
It can be argued that suicide prevents further selection of the same way slavery. However, it can also be argued that there are significant differences in not having any further involvement in decisions about their lives and not having any later in life to make decisions about. Suicide essentially removes the state of being alive, unable to make decisions about their lives.
Mill believes the individual to be the best defenders of their own interests. He uses the example of a man about to cross a broken bridge: we can forcibly stop that person and warn him of danger, but ultimately should not prevent him to cross the bridge - only he knows the price of his life, balanced by the danger of crossing the bridge.
Too much should not be read in "disposing of its own destiny" in the passage, and it is not necessary to talk about anything but slavery. It would indeed be strange if the Mill was intended to be about suicide, but not fully explored question.
1.4. The arguments against suicide. Deontology. (Деонтология)
From the ethical aspect, Immanuel Kant, opposed suicide in fundamental principles of the metaphysics of morals. In accordance with the second formulation of his categorical imperative, Kant claims that "whoever has in mind suicide should ask himself whether his action can be consistent with the idea of humanity as an end in itself". Kants theory looks at the law, not on its results and consequences, and claims that one is ethically obliged to consider will be ready for the universalization of the law: p. Everyone should behave in such a way. Kant argues that choosing to commit suicide entails considering yourself as a means to achieve the goal, which he rejects: a person, he says, should not be used "merely as means, but in all actions always be considered as a goal in itself." Thus, it is unethical to commit suicide to satisfy yourself.
1.5. The arguments against suicide. Social contract. (Социальный контракт)
Social contract according to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is such that everyone has "the right to risk his own life to save him."
Hobbes and Locke rejected the right of the people to take their own lives. Hobbes argues in his Leviathan, that the natural law forbids every man "to do that which destroys his life, or take away the means of preserving the same." Violation of this natural law is irrational and immoral. Hobbes also claims that it is intuitively rational for men to want felicity and the fear of death.
2. Neutral and situational positions. (Нейтральные и ситуативные позиции)
In Japan, suicide is called Hara-Kiri, which is an honorable way to redeem himself for the sins or personal losses. It was widely accepted in the days of the samurai and even earlier. It usually is a privilege granted only to the samurai class, civil criminals, thus, do not have this honor and to be executed. This reflects a view of suicide as brave and correct, but not cowardly and wrong.
Utilitarianism can be used as an excuse or argument against suicide. Although the death of a depressed person ends their suffering, faces, family and friends can grieve.
3. The argument that suicide may be acceptable. (Довод о том, что самоубийство может быть приемлемым)
There are arguments in favor of allowing a person to choose between life and suicide. Those in favor of suicide as a personal choice to reject the idea that suicide is always or usually irrational, but instead of solving the real problems, the line of last resort that can legitimately be taken when the alternative is worse. They believe that they should not suffer unnecessarily, and suicide provides an escape from suffering.
3.1. The argument that suicide may be acceptable. Idealism. (Идеализм)
Herodotus wrote: "When life is so burdensome death has become for man a desirable refuge." Schopenhauer affirmed: "they tell us that suicide is the greatest act of cowardice. that suicide is a sin, when it is quite obvious that there is nothing in the world, where every man has a more unassailable title than his own life and person."
Schopenhauers main work the world as will and representation, occasionally uses the act in its examples. He denied that suicide was immoral and saw it as a right to take life. In the allegory, he compared ending the life of a man in great suffering, to waking up from sleep when experiencing a terrible nightmare. However, most suicides have been seen as an act of will, as it happens when a person takes the life of pain, and thus different from ascetic renunciation of the will, which denies lifes pleasures.
According to Schopenhauer, moral freedom is the highest ethical goal is to be obtained only by denying the will to live. Far from denial, suicide is an emphatic assertion of this. Run for joy, not misery of life, that this denial consists. When a man destroys his existence as a person, he in no way without destroying his will to live. On the contrary, he would like to live, if he could do it noted with satisfaction to himself, if he could prevail against the power of circumstance, but circumstance is too strong for him.
Schopenhauer also examined the arguments against suicide. "It is an extravagant demand, that the person who no longer cares to live for himself, must still live as a simple machine for the benefit of others."
3.2. The argument that suicide may be acceptable. Libertarianism. (Либертарианство)
Libertarianism claims that a persons life belongs only to them and no other individual has the right to force their own ideals that life must be lived. Rather, only the individual involved can make such decision, and whatever decision must be respected.
The philosopher and psychiatrist Thomas Szasz goes further, arguing that suicide is the most fundamental of all rights. If freedom is self-ownership - property rights to their own life and body - then the right to end that life is the most fundamental of all. If others can force you to live, you do not own yourself and belong to them.
Jean Amery, in his book on suicide: a discourse on voluntary death, originally published in German in 1976, provides a moving perspective on suicidal thoughts. He argues forcefully and almost romantically that suicide represents the ultimate freedom of humanity, justifying the act with phrases such as "we only come in freely chosen death" and lamenting "ridiculously everyday life and their alienation". Amer killed himself in 1978.
Philosophical thinking in the 19th and 20th century led to the fact that in some cases, apart from the fact that from the point of view of Pro-choice, to the point that suicide is not the last resort, or something that you have to justify, but that it is necessary to justify not doing it. Many forms of existentialist thinking essentially begin with the fact that life is objectively meaningless, and the question of why not just kill yourself, then they have to answer this question, assuming that person has the power to give personal meaning of life.
3.3. The argument that suicide may be acceptable. Stoicism. (Стоицизм)
Although George Lyman Kittredge States that "the Stoics held that suicide is cowardly and wrong," the most famous Stoics - Seneca the Younger, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius - a claim that death by their own hand is always possible and frequently more honorable than a life of protracted misery.
The Stoics accepted that suicide was permissible for the wise person in circumstances that would prevent them from living a virtuous life. Plutarch considered that the acceptance of life under tyranny can be at risk of self-consistency Catos Latin: Constantia, as stoick and the violation of his freedom to do noble moral choice. Suicide can be justified if one fell victim to severe pain or disease, but otherwise suicide, as a rule, will be considered as a waiver of those social responsibilities.
3.4. The argument that suicide may be acceptable. Confucianism. (Конфуцианство)
Confucianism believes that failure to follow certain values is worse than death, so suicide may be morally permissible and even praiseworthy if it is done for the sake of these values. The Confucian emphasis on loyalty, sacrifice and honor has tended to encourage altruistic suicide. Confucius wrote: "for the purposes of the Lord and men of REN while it is inconceivable that they should seek to stay alive at the expense of Ren, it may happen that they have to accept death to REN accomplished." Mencius wrote:
Fish is what I want, bears, palm is also what I want. If I cant have it, Id rather bears the palm than fish. Life is what I want, Yi is also what I want. If I cant have it, Id rather have Yi than life. On the one hand, though life is what I want, eat what I want more than life. That is why I do not cling to life at any cost. On the other hand, although death is what I hate, what I hate more than death. Therefore, there is the danger can not be avoided. There are still ways to stay alive and ways of avoiding death to which man will not resort. In other words, there are things that a man wants more than life and also that he or she hates more than death.
3.5. The argument that suicide may be acceptable. Other arguments. (Другие аргументы)
David Hume wrote his essay on suicide in 1755, although it was not published until years after his death, in 1777. Most of them are associated with the statement that suicide is an affront to God. Hume argues that suicide is not a rebellion against God than saving the life of someone who would otherwise die, or change the position of something in those neighborhoods. He spends much less time dismissing arguments that is an insult to their duty to others or to himself. Hume claims that suicide can be compared to retiring from society and becoming a recluse, which is usually not considered immoral, although the comparison would seem to justify a suicide that leaves behind children or dependents, the most vulnerable. The loan for yourself, Hume takes it is obvious that there can be cases when suicide is a desirable, although he also thinks its funny that anyone would consider suicide unless they first considered all the possible options.
Those who support the right to die argue that suicide is acceptable under certain circumstances, such as incurable disease and old age. The idea is that although life is, in General, well, people who face irreversible suffering should not be forced to suffer.
Leonard Peikoff States in his book objectivism: the philosophy of Ayn Rand:
Suicide is justified only when a Mans life, as a result of circumstances beyond the control of a person, it is no longer possible, an example may be a person with a painful terminal illness, or in captivity in a concentration camp who sees no chance of escape. In such cases, suicide is not necessarily a philosophic rejection of life and reality. On the contrary, it may very well be their tragic confirmation. Self-destruct in such situations can be equated to torture the cry: "life mana means so much to me that I wont settle for anything less. I will not accept a living death as a substitute".
A bioethicist Jacob Appel has criticized the "arbitrary" ethical systems that will allow patients to refuse medical care when they are sick, while denying the mentally ill the right to suicide.
- benefit of others Church of Euthanasia Human extinction Philosophy of suicide Pro - ana and Pro - mia, advocacy of eating disorders Right to die Suicide attack
- Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one s own death. Mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders
- regarding suicide Sweden portal Epidemiology of suicide List of countries by suicide rate Philosophy of suicide Suicide crisis Suicide prevention Suicide
- give insight in the philosophy of suicide for his planned Suicide Club trilogy, and to interwine the stories of these movies. Suicide Circle Noriko s Dinner
- A suicide note or death note is a message left behind when a person dies by suicide or intends to die by suicide It is estimated that 25 30 of suicides
- A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker accepts their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage, or destroy
- A suicide attempt is an attempt where a person tries to die by suicide but survives. It may be referred to as a failed suicide attempt or nonfatal suicide
- The philosophy of social science is the study of the logic, methods, and foundations of social sciences such as psychology, economics, and political science
- A suicide method is any means by which a person completes suicide purposely ending their life. People who attempt suicide and survive may experience serious
- concept of suicide The Council of Arles 452 stated if a slave commits suicide no reproach shall fall upon his master. There are some precursors of Christian
- Youth suicide is when a young person, generally categorized as someone below age 21, deliberately ends their own life. Rates of attempted and completed
- homicide - suicide is as the term homicide includes both murder and manslaughter and is therefore more encompassing. The combination of murder and suicide can
- timed. Suicide pacts are an important concept in the study of suicide and have occurred throughout history, as well as in fiction. An example of this is
- In quantum mechanics, quantum suicide is a thought experiment, originally published independently by Hans Moravec in 1987 and Bruno Marchal in 1988 and
- Altruistic suicide in India Archives of Suicide Research. 8 1 73 80. doi: 10.1080 13811110490243804. PMID 16006390. Rist, J.M. Stoic Philosophy Cambridge:
- Mass suicide is a form of suicide occurring when a group of people simultaneously kill themselves. Mass suicide sometimes occurs in religious settings
- evidence would include suicide notes, previous attempts, threats of suicide or a history of mental illness. In a study of pilot suicides from 2002 2013, eight
- Suicide is a crime in some parts of the world. However, while suicide has been decriminalized in the western countries, the act is still stigmatized and
- Suicide French: Le suicide is an 1897 book written by French sociologist Emile Durkheim. It was the first methodological study of a social fact in the
- Suicide intervention is a direct effort to prevent a person or persons from attempting to take their own life or lives intentionally. Most countries have
- Suicide by cop or suicide by police is a suicide method in which a suicidal individual deliberately behaves in a threatening manner, with intent to provoke
- The following are lists of notable people who died by suicide Suicides effected under duress are included. Deaths by accident or misadventure are excluded
- Suicide in China has a long history as a cultural practice. Commemoration of Qu Yuan s patriotic suicide is popularly considered the basis for the annual
- A copycat suicide is defined as an emulation of another suicide that the person attempting suicide knows about either from local knowledge or due to accounts
- a list of current and historic sites frequently chosen to attempt suicide usually by jumping. Some of the sites listed have installed suicide barriers
- The philosophy of healthcare is the study of the ethics, processes, and people which constitute the maintenance of health for human beings. Although veterinary
- Suicide risk assessment is a process of estimating the likelihood for a person to attempt or die by suicide The goal of a thorough risk assessment is
- There are a variety of religious views on suicide Nothing in the Christian Bible expressly prohibits suicide In fact, the Bible does not condemn it
- Prisoner suicide is suicide by an inmate in a jail or prison. Signs that a prisoner may be at risk of suicide include giving away valued possessions, speaking
- Suicide in Ukraine is a common cause of unnatural death and a serious social issue. In 2009, Ukraine ranked 13th in the world by its total suicide per
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