★ Death drive
In classical Freudian psychoanalytic theory of the death drive, the desire for death and self-destruction. It was originally proposed by Sabina Spielrein in her work "destruction as cause of becoming" in 1912, which was then discussed by Sigmund Freud in 1920 in beyond the pleasure principle. This concept is translated as "the confrontation between the ego and the death instincts and the sexual or life instincts". In the pleasure Principle, Freud used the plural "death drives" much more often than in the singular.
The death drive opposes Eros, the desire for survival, animals, sex, and other creative, life-producing drives. The death drive is sometimes referred to as "Thanatos" in post-Freudian thought, complementing "Eros", although this term was not used in own work, family Freud, being rather introduced by Wilhelm Stekel in 1909, and then by Paul Federn in this context.
However, some scholars argue that there is little evidence that many people have the desire for self-destruction. According to them, Freud studied can be explained simpler, known processes, such as the severity of addiction, for example, a person abuses drugs because the promise of immediate pleasure is more compelling than the intellectual knowledge of harm in future risk calculations, for example, a person drives recklessly or plays dangerous sports because the increases in status and reproductive success outweigh the risk of injury or death.
1. Terminology. (Терминология)
Standard edition family Freud works in English confuses two terms that are different in Germany, the instinct "instinct" and Trieb "drive", often translated as instinct, for example, "the hypothesis of the death instinct, the task of which is organic life into the inanimate state". "This equating of instinct and Trieb has created serious misunderstandings". Freud actually refers to the term "instinct" in clear to use in another place, and therefore, although the concept of "instinct" can loosely be called "drive", any philosopher or naturalist connotations of the term should be forgotten. In a sense, the death drive is the force that is necessary for the life of the organism in contrast to the "instinct" and seeks to destroy it or make it behave in ways that are sometimes counterintuitive. In other words, the term death drive is simply a false idea of the death instinct. The term is almost universally known in scholarly literature on Freud as the "death drive", and Lacanian psychoanalysts often shorten it to simply "drive" while Freud postulated the existence of other, and hard drives, and directly reads Lacan in seminar XI that all the drives are the partial destruction of the disk. Modern Penguin translations of Freud to translate Trieb and instinct as "drive" and "instinct" respectively.
2. Theory: beyond the pleasure principle. (Теория: по ту сторону принципа удовольствия)
This was the basic premise of the family of Freud that "the course taken by mental events is automatically regulated by the pleasure principle. The instinct is then called the destructive instinct, the instinct of mastery, or the will to power," perhaps much more recognisable set of manifestations.
At the end of the decade, in civilization and its contradictions the 1930s, Freud acknowledged that "to begin with it was only tentatively that I put forward the views I have formed, but over time they have acquired such power on me that I can no longer think otherwise."
3. Philosophy. (Философия)
From a philosophical point of view, the death instinct can be seen in the work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. His philosophy, expounded in the world as will and idea 1818 postulates that all exists by a metaphysical "will" more clearly, will live, and that pleasure affirms this. Schopenhauers pessimism led him to believe that the statement "will" was a negative and immoral thing because of his creed of life to produce more suffering than happiness. The death drive would seem to manifest as a natural and psychological denial of the "will."
Freud was well aware of such possible links. In a letter of 1919, he wrote that "the theme of death, stumbled upon a strange idea via the drives and must now read all sorts of things that belong, for example, for Schopenhauer". Indeed, Ernest Jones, who like many other analysts were not convinced of the need for the death drive, and the instinct of aggression, it is considered that "Freud seemed to have landed in the position of Schopenhauer, who taught that death is the purpose of life".
However, as Freud put his imagined auditors of his new introductory lectures of 1932, "you may shrug and say, "this is not a natural science, its Schopenhauers philosophy!" But, ladies and gentlemen, why not a bold thinker have guessed something that is afterwards confirmed by sober and painstaking detailed research?" He then added that "what we are saying is not even genuine Schopenhauer.we do not neglect the fact that there is life and death. We recognize two basic instincts and give each of them its own aim".
4. Cultural application: civilization and its contradictions. (Культурная программа: цивилизация и ее противоречия)
Freud applied his new theoretical construct in civilization and its contradictions 1930 the difficulties inherent in Western civilization - indeed, in civilization and in social life in General. In particular, given that "the establishment of an Agency within him to watch over it," leaves a sense of uneasiness inherent in civilized life, thereby providing a structural explanation for the suffering of civilized man.
Freud made a further connection between group life and innate aggression, where the former comes together more closely by directing aggression to other groups, the idea was picked up by group analysts like Wilfred Bion.
5. Further development of the family Freud views. (Дальнейшее развитие взглядов семьи Фрейда)
In recent decades, family life of Freud, it has been suggested, his view of the death drive changed somewhat, with "the stress much more after the death instinct manifestations outwards ". Given "the ubiquity of erotic aggressiveness and destructiveness", he wrote in the 1930-ies, "I take the standpoint that the inclination to aggression is an original, independent instinctual disposition, living in a man".
In 1933 he conceded of his original formulation of the death drive the improbability of our speculations. A strange instinct, in fact, aimed at the destruction of its own organic home!. In addition, he wrote that "our hypothesis is that there are two essentially different classes of instincts: the sexual instincts, understood in the widest sense - Eros, if you prefer that name-and the aggressive instincts, whose aim is destruction". In 1937, he went so far as to suggest privately that we should have a neat schematic picture if we supposed that originally, at the beginning of life, all libido is directed inward and outward aggressiveness. In his last writings, it was the contrast of "two basic instincts, Eros and the destructive instinct in the inorganic state" continued until the end.
6. Analytical technique. (Аналитическая техника)
As Freud wryly commented in 1930, "the assumption of the existence of the death instinct and destruction has met with resistance even in analytic circles". Indeed, Ernest Jones would comment beyond the pleasure principle that the book not only "will have the boldness of speculation that was unique in all his writings" but "it is still remarkable that only one family Freud, who received recognition from his followers."
Otto Fenichel in his compendious survey of the first Freudian half-century concluded that "the facts on which Freud based his concept of the death instinct does not require assumptions as many opinions as there are psychoanalysts".
Family Freud the conceptual opposition of death and Eros drives in the human psyche was done by Walter A. Davis in eradication: historicity, Hiroshima, and the tragic imperative and deaths dream Kingdom: the American psychology after 9 / 11. Davis described social reactions to both Hiroshima and 9/11 to Freudian point of view, the forces of death. If they knowingly take the responsibility for damage to these reactions, Davis argues that the Americans will repeat them.
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