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ⓘ Outline of death



Outline of death
                                     

ⓘ Outline of death

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to death:

Death – termination of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

                                     

1. What is death?

Death can be described as all of the following:

  • Birth – act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring. In mammals, the process is initiated by hormones which cause the muscular walls of the uterus to contract, expelling the fetus at a developmental stage when it is ready to feed and breathe. Commonly considered the beginning of ones life. "First you are born, then you live life, then you die."
  • End of life – life is the characteristic distinguishing physical entities having signaling and self-sustaining processes from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased death, or because they lack such functions and are classified as inanimate.
  • Fertilisation Conception – the beginning of an organisms life, initiated by the fusion of gametes resulting in the development of a new individual organism. In animals, the process involves the fusion of an ovum with a sperm, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo.
  • De-extinction – process of creating an organism, which is a member of or resembles an extinct species, or a breeding population of such organisms. Cloning is the most widely proposed method, although selective breeding has also been proposed. Similar techniques have been applied to endangered species. Though we have not yet brought an extinct species back to life
  • Biogenesis – production of new living organisms or organelles. The law of biogenesis, attributed to Louis Pasteur, is the observation that living things come only from other living things, by reproduction e.g. a spider lays eggs, which develop into spiders.
  • Death is the opposite of
  • Life – see above
  • Indefinite lifespan – term used in the life extension movement and transhumanism to refer to the hypothetical longevity of humans and other life-forms under conditions in which aging is effectively and completely prevented and treated. Their lifespans would be "indefinite" that is, they would not be "immortal" because protection from the effects of aging on health does not guarantee survival. Such individuals would still be susceptible to accidental or intentional death by disease, starvation, getting hit by a truck, murdered, and so on, but not death from aging, some animals can live forever such as the Turritopsis doohmii jellyfish, or the bowhead whale.
  • Survival – Survival is simply the need to live, the only real purpose of an organism is to generate offspring
                                     

2. Types of death

  • Local extinction extirpation – condition of a species another taxon that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere. Local extinctions are contrasted with global extinctions. Local extinction can be reversed by reintroduction of the species to the area from other locations; wolf reintroduction is an example of this.
  • Human extinction – hypothesized end of the human species. Various scenarios have been discussed in science, popular culture, and religion see end time
  • Individual death – termination of all biological functions within a living organism
  • Extinction – death of an entire species, or more specifically, death of the last member of a species
  • Extinction event – widespread and rapid decrease in the amount of life on Earth. Such an event is identified by a sharp reduction in the diversity and abundance of macroscopic life. Also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis.
                                     

3.1. Causes of death Causes of death, by type

  • Accidents – unplanned events or circumstances, often with lack of intention or necessity. They generally have negative outcomes which might have been avoided or prevented had circumstances leading up to each accident had been recognized, and acted upon, prior to occurrence. An example of a type of accident that can cause death is a traffic collision.
  • List of accident types
  • Terminal illness
  • Disease –
  • Biological aging –
  • Wound
  • Injury
  • Mortal wound
  • Killing – causing the death of a living organism, usually for the purpose of survival, including the defense of self and or others.
  • Human sacrifice
  • Homicide –
  • Murder – killing of a human done in malice
  • Predation –
  • Animal sacrifice
  • Human sacrifice
  • Sacrifice
  • Murder–suicide –
  • Suicide – act of intentionally causing ones own death. Suicide is often carried out as a result of despair, the cause of which is frequently attributed to a mental disorder such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, alcoholism, or drug abuse. Stress factors such as financial difficulties or troubles with interpersonal relationships often play a role. Efforts to prevent suicide include limiting access to firearms, treating mental illness and drug misuse, and improving economic circumstances.
  • Forced suicide –
  • Assisted suicide –
  • Honor suicide –
  • Copycat suicide –
  • Internet suicide pact –
  • Parasuicide –
  • Mass suicide –
  • Familicide –
  • Suicide attack –
  • Suicide by cop –
  • Suicide pact –
  • Capital punishment – legal process whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The judicial decree that someone is punished in this manner is a death sentence, while the actual enforcement is an execution. Also called the "death penalty".
  • List of methods of capital punishment
  • War – organized and often prolonged conflict that is carried out by states or non-state actors. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, social disruption and an attempt at economic destruction. War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of collective political violence or intervention. The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare.
  • Genocide – systematic destruction of all or a significant part of a racial, ethnic, religious or national group. Well-known examples of genocide include the Holocaust, the Armenian genocide, and more recently the Rwandan genocide.
  • Volcanic eruptions –
  • Avalanches –
  • Laughing oneself to death extremely rare –
  • Hydrological disasters – disasters involving bodies of water
  • Floods –
  • Natural disasters –
  • Earthquakes –
  • Limnic eruptions –
  • Tsunamis –
  • Blizzards –
  • Meteorological disasters – disasters involving weather phenomena
  • Extratropical cyclones –
  • Cyclonic storms –
  • Tropical cyclones –
  • Tornadoes –
  • Heat waves –
  • Droughts –
  • Hailstorms –
  • Solar flares –
  • Epidemics –
  • Impact events –
  • Wildfires –
  • Space disasters –


                                     

3.2. Causes of death Other classifications of causes of death

  • Causes of death by rate
  • Potential causes of death
  • Global catastrophic risks –
  • Preventable causes of death
                                     

4. Effects of death

  • Death anxiety – morbid, abnormal or persistent fear of ones own death or the process of his/her dying. One definition of death anxiety is a "feeling of dread, apprehension or solicitude anxiety when one thinks of the process of dying, or ceasing to be’". Also known as thanatophobia fear of death.
  • Effects of the anticipation of death
  • Mortality salience –
  • End of consciousness – a dead body is no longer awake, but there is the question of where consciousness went to, if anywhere.
  • Effects on the deceased and on the cadaver – "deceased" is short for "deceased person", which is a person who has died and who is therefore dead. A cadaver is the body of a dead person.
  • Is there consciousness after death? – there is a debate between proponents of the following possibilities
  • Afterlife
  • Eternal oblivion
  • Cardiac arrest – the heart has stopped beating no pulse
  • Pallor mortis – paleness which happens in the 15–120 minutes after death
  • Algor mortis – reduction in body temperature following death. This is generally a steady decline until matching ambient temperature
  • Cessation of breathing
  • Livor mortis – settling of the blood in the lower dependent portion of the body
  • Rigor mortis – limbs of the corpse become stiff Latin rigor and difficult to move or manipulate
  • Decomposition – reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor.
  • Putrefaction –
  • Other possible effects
  • Death erection –
  • Consumed by scavengers – a scavenger is an animal that feeds on dead animal and/or plant material present in its habitat
  • In the wild
  • Treatment of corpses
  • Catagenesis
  • Fossilization
  • Decomposed by detritivores – detritivores are organisms which recycle detritus, returning it to the environment for reuse in the food chain. Examples of detritivores include earthworms, woodlice and dung beetles.
  • Consumed by predators if those predators made the kill – a predator is an organism that hunts and then eats its prey
  • Natural burial
  • In society
  • Embalming
  • Sky burial
  • Burial at sea
  • Disposal of human corpses
  • Burial
  • Cremation
  • Preservation of human corpses
  • Cryonics
  • Mourning –
  • Effects on others
  • Grief –
  • Depression –
                                     

5. History of death

  • Unusual deaths
  • Deaths of people
  • Deaths by year
  • Deaths of philosophers
  • Disasters by death toll
  • Wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll
  • Natural disasters by death toll
  • TV actors who died during production
  • People by cause of death
  • Deaths of other species
  • Timeline of extinctions
  • History of dissection
  • Mummification
  • Fascination with death
  • Premature obituaries
                                     

6. Death and culture

Death and culture

  • Disposal of human corpses
  • Expressions related to death
  • Personification of death – the concept of Death as a sentient entity has existed in many societies since the beginning of recorded history. For example, in English culture, Death is often given the name "the Grim Reaper" and, from the 15th century onwards, came to be shown as a skeletal figure carrying a large scythe and clothed in a black cloak with a hood.
  • Obituary
  • Death and the Internet
  • Wake
                                     

6.1. Death and culture Medical field and death

  • End-of-life care
  • Clinical death
  • Cadaveric spasm
  • Unnatural death
  • Abortion
  • Death rattle
  • Brain death
  • Death by natural causes
  • Lazarus sign
  • Lazarus syndrome
  • Euthanasia
  • Autopsy
  • Medical definition of death
  • Terminal illness
  • Mortal wound
  • Organ donation
                                     

6.2. Death and culture Politics of death

  • Capital punishment debate
  • Abortion debate
  • Capital punishment debate in the United States
  • Mass grave
  • Assisted suicide
  • Martyr
  • Right to life
  • Right to life debates
  • Euthanasia debate
  • Euthanasia debate
  • Euthanasia
  • Right to die
  • War
                                     

6.3. Death and culture Legalities of death

  • Cause of death – the purpose of a forensic autopsy is to determine the cause of death, which is the condition or conditions officially determined to have resulted in a humans death. In modern times, such a determination usually is essential data on a governmental death certificate.
  • Autopsy
  • Abortion law
  • Capital punishment
  • Death row
  • Coroner
  • Crimes against humanity related to death
  • Genocide
  • Massacre
  • Crimes related to death
  • Murder
  • Death threat
  • Homicide
  • Homicide occurring during a felony
  • Murder
  • Manslaughter
  • Necrophilia
  • Probate law
  • Disposition of the estate of the deceased
  • Disposal of human corpses
  • Will
  • Probate court
  • Inheritance
  • Administration of an estate on death
  • Probate
  • Trust law
  • Death certificate
  • Cause of death
  • Legal death
  • Declared death in absentia
  • Right to die


                                     

6.4. Death and culture Religion and death

  • Religious beliefs concerning death
  • Hell
  • Heaven
  • Afterlife
  • Resurrection
  • Wake
  • Last rites
  • Eulogy
  • Funeral
  • Religious ceremonies concerning death
                                     

6.5. Death and culture Death care industry

Death care industry – companies and organizations that provide services related to death.

  • Funeral homes –
  • Cemeteries –
  • Crematory industry –
  • Death care industry sectors
  • Coffin industry –
  • Memorial industry –
  • Stonemasonry – craft of creating buildings, structures including memorials, and sculpture including headstones, using stone from the earth.
  • Headstone industry –
  • Burial service –
  • Death care industry products and services
  • Coffins product –
  • Funerals service –
  • Headstones product –
  • Memorials product –
  • Cremation service –
  • Funeral director –
  • Stonemason – using stone from the earth, stonemasons create buildings, structures, and sculpture, including headstones and memorials.
  • Death care professionals
  • Stewart Enterprises
  • Service Corporation International
  • Death care companies


                                     

7. Science of death

  • Forensic pathology
  • Mortuary science
  • Necrobiology
  • Funeral director
  • Taphonomy
  • Thanatology

Demography of death

  • Perinatal mortality
  • Maternal death
  • Child mortality
  • Infant mortality
  • Karōshi
  • Mortality displacement
  • Mortality rate
                                     

8. Paranormal concepts pertaining to death

  • Pseudoscience
  • Paranormal research
  • Parapsychology
  • Reincarnation research
  • Afterlife
  • Seance
  • Deathbed phenomena
  • Death-related paranormal phenomena
  • After-death communication
  • Ghosts
  • Near-death studies
  • Near-death experience
  • Necromancy
                                     

9. Death-related organizations

  • Rainbows
  • The Grief Recovery Institute
  • Grief support
  • Mothers of Murdered Offspring
  • Reprieve organisation
  • Human Rights Watch
  • Amnesty International
  • World Coalition Against the Death Penalty
  • International
  • Buddhist Peace Fellowship
  • Organizations dedicated to the abolition of capital punishment death penalty
  • International Committee Against Executions
  • Witness to Innocence
  • National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty
  • Campaign to End the Death Penalty
  • Conservatives Concerned About the Death Penalty
  • People of Faith Against the Death Penalty
  • Texas Students Against the Death Penalty
  • Texas Moratorium Network
  • In the United States
  • Death Penalty Focus
                                     

10. Death-related publications

  • Tibetan Book of the Dead
  • The American Way of Death Revisited, by Jessica Mitford
  • Book of the Dead
  • The Japanese Way of Death, by Hikaru Suzuki
  • The American Way of Death, by Jessica Mitford
                                     

11. Other

  • Coffin birth
  • Resomation
  • Preventable causes of death
  • Promession
  • Post-mortem interval
  • Immortality
political/legal
  • Suspicious death
  • Dying declaration
  • Inquest
  • Faked death
  • Cause of death
  • Death-qualified jury
After death
  • Vigil
  • Cemetery
  • Death mask
  • Intermediate state
  • Examination
  • Eternal oblivion
  • Taboo on the dead
  • Funeral
  • Afterlife
  • Other aspects
  • Resurrection
  • Customs
  • Grief
  • Mourning
Other
  • Death anniversary
  • Psychopomp
  • Death deity
  • Dying-and-rising god
  • Death anxiety
  • Personification of death
  • Death knell
  • Death notification
  • Death march
  • Death education
  • Death drive
  • Death poem
  • Death hoax
  • Festival of the dead
  • Thanatosensitivity
  • Undead
  • Spiritual death
  • Death camp
  • The Order of the Good Death
  • Death squad
  • Necrophobia
  • Death messenger
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