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ⓘ Alcohol and health




                                               

Alcohol and health

Alcohol has a number of effects on health. Short-term effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication and dehydration. Long-term effects of alcohol consumption include changes in the metabolism of the liver and brain and alcoholism. Alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing slurred speech, clumsiness, and delayed reflexes. Alcohol stimulates insulin production, which speeds up glucose metabolism and can result in low blood sugar, causing irritability and possibly death for diabetics. Even light and moderate alcohol consumption increases cancer risk in individuals. A 2014 World He ...

                                               

Alcohol dehydrogenase

Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to NADH. In humans and many other animals, they serve to break down alcohols that otherwise are toxic, and they also participate in generation of useful aldehyde, ketone, or alcohol groups during biosynthesis of various metabolites. In yeast, plants, and many bacteria, some alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the opposite reaction as part of fermentation to ensure a constant ...

                                               

Alcohol intolerance

Alcohol intolerance is due to a genetic polymorphism of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme that metabolises ingested alcohol. This polymorphism is most often reported in Asian patients. It can also be an effect or side effect associated with certain drugs such as disulfiram, metronidazole, or nilutamide. Stuffy nose and skin flushing are the most common symptoms when ingesting alcohol. It may also be characterized as intolerance causing hangover symptoms similar to the "disulfiram-like reaction" of aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency or chronic fatigue syndrome. Severe pain after d ...

                                               

Dipsomania

Dipsomania is a historical term describing a medical condition involving an uncontrollable craving for alcohol. In the 19th century, the term dipsomania was used to refer to a variety of alcohol-related problems, most of which are known today as alcoholism. Dipsomania is occasionally still used to describe a particular condition of periodic, compulsive bouts of alcohol intake. The idea of dipsomania is important for its historical role in promoting a disease theory of chronic drunkenness. The word comes from Greek dipso and mania. It is still mentioned in the WHO ICD-10 classification as a ...

                                               

Dry January

Dry January is a public health campaign urging people to abstain from alcohol for the month of January, particularly practised in the United Kingdom. The campaign, as a formal entity, appears to be relatively recent, being described as having "sprung up in recent years" even in 2014. However, the Finnish government had launched a campaign called "Sober January" in 1942 as part of its war effort. The term "Dry January" was registered as a trademark by the charity Alcohol Concern in mid-2014; the first ever Dry January campaign by Alcohol Concern occurred in January 2013. In the leadup to th ...

                                               

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during her pregnancy. Problems may include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems, and problems with hearing or seeing. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal problems, participate in high-risk behaviors, and have trouble with alcohol or other drugs. The most severe form of the condition is known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Other types include partial fetal alcohol syn ...

                                               

Gin Craze

The Gin Craze was a period in the first half of the 18th century when the consumption of gin increased rapidly in Great Britain, especially in London. Daniel Defoe commented: "the Distillers have found out a way to hit the palate of the Poor, by their new fashiond compound Waters called Geneva, so that the common People seem not to value the French-brandy as usual, and even not to desire it". Many people overconsumed and the city had an epidemic of extreme drunkenness; this provoked moral outrage and a legislative backlash that some compare to the modern drug wars. Parliament passed five m ...

                                               

High Watch Recovery Center

High Watch Recovery Center is an alcohol and drug addiction recovery center located in Kent, Connecticut. It was the first recovery center in the US founded on the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous.

                                               

Alcohol intoxication

Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is the negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of alcohol. Symptoms at lower doses may include mild sedation and poor coordination. At higher doses, there may be slurred speech, trouble walking, and vomiting. Extreme doses may result in a decreased effort to breathe, coma, or death. Complications may include seizures, aspiration pneumonia, injuries including suicide, and low blood sugar. Alcohol intoxication can lead to alcohol-related crime with perpetrators more likely to be intoxicated than v ...

                                               

Norman Kerr

Norman Shanks Kerr M.D.,F.L.S. was a physician who is remembered for his work in the British temperance movement. He originated the Total Abstinence Society and was founder and first president of the Society for the Study and Cure of Inebriety which was founded in 1884. In his writings he insisted on regarding inebriety as a disease and not a vice: "a disease of the nervous system allied to insanity", an "abnormal condition, in which morbid cravings and impulses to intoxication are apt to be developed in such force as to overpower the moral resistance and control." In 1890 in a conference ...

                                               

Paddington alcohol test

The Paddington alcohol test was first published in the Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine in 1996. It was designed to identify alcohol-related problems amongst those attending accident and emergency departments. It concords well with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test questionnaire but is administered in a fifth of the time. When 40–70% of the patients in an accident and emergency department AED are there because of alcohol-related issues, it is useful for the staff of the AED to determine which of them are hazardous drinkers so that they can treat the underlying cause a ...

                                               

Passive drinking

Passive drinking, like passive smoking, refers to the damage done to others as a result of drinking alcoholic beverages. These include the unborn fetus and children of parents who drink excessively, drunk drivers, accidents, domestic violence and alcohol-related sexual assaults On 2 February 2010 Eurocare, the European Alcohol Policy Alliance, organised a seminar on" The Social Cost of Alcohol: Passive drinking”. On 21 May 2010 the World Health Organization reached a consensus at the World Health Assembly on a resolution to confront the harmful use of alcohol.

                                               

Sobering center

A sobering center is a facility or setting providing short-term recovery, detoxification, and recuperation from the effects of acute alcohol or drug intoxication. Sobering centers, instead, are fully staffed facilities providing oversight and ongoing monitoring throughout the sobering process. Sobering centers include alternatives to jail and emergency departments, as well as drop-in centers”. There are small numbers of sobering centers around the world. There are over 40 sobering centers in the United States, with dozens more in development. In the US, sobering centers were created alongs ...

                                               

Subjective response to alcohol

Subjective response to alcohol refers to an individuals unique experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol and is a putative risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorder. Subjective effects include both stimulating experiences typically occurring during the beginning of a drinking episode as breath alcohol content rises and sedative effects, which are more prevalent later in a drinking episode as BAC wanes. The combined influence of hedonic and aversive subjective experiences over the course of a drinking session are strong predictors of alcohol consumption and drinking ...

                                               

Alcohol and weight

The relationship between alcohol and weight is the subject of inconclusive studies. Findings of these studies range from increase in body weight to a small decrease among women who begin consuming alcohol. Some of these studies are conducted with numerous subjects; one involved nearly 80.000 and another 140.000 subjects. Findings are inconclusive because alcohol itself contains seven calories per gram, but research suggests that alcohol energy is not efficiently used. Alcohol also appears to increase metabolic rate significantly, thus causing more calories to be burned rather than stored i ...

                                     

ⓘ Alcohol and health

  • Alcohol laws are laws in relation to the manufacture, use, being under the influence of and sale of alcohol also known formally as ethanol or alcoholic
  • 1950s, and stepped down when he was offered a position at the World Health Organization. He was replaced by Selden D. Bacon. The Yale Center of Alcohol Studies
  • abuse Alcohol advertising Impact of alcohol on aging Alcoholism Alcohol and breast cancer Alcohol and cancer Alcohol powder Alcohol and sex Alcohol dementia
  • difficulty with the use of alcohol Among contemporary Native Americans and Alaska Natives, 11.7 of all deaths are alcohol - related. By comparison, about
  • unit of alcohol per hour, although this may vary depending on sex, age, weight, health and many other factors. The number of UK units of alcohol in a drink
  • Alcohol is commonly consumed and available at pubs and liquor stores in Australia all of which are private enterprises. Spirits can be purchased at liquor
  • countries by alcohol consumption measured in equivalent litres of pure alcohol ethanol consumed per capita per year. The World Health Organization periodically
  • Alcohol and sex deals with the effects of the consumption of alcohol on sexual behavior. The effects of alcohol are balanced between its suppressive effects
  • form acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver, has occasionally been abused by alcoholics, leading to a range of adverse health effects. Excessive

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