ⓘ Law by type


Framework law

Framework laws are laws that are more specific than constitutional provisions. They lay down general obligations and principles but leave to governing authorities the task of enacting the further legislation and other specific measures, as may be required.


Hard law

Hard law refers to actual binding legal instruments and laws. In contrast with soft law, hard law gives States and international actors actual binding responsibilities as well as rights. The term is common in international law where there are no sovereign governing bodies. Hard law means binding laws. To constitute law, a rule, instrument or decision must be authoritative and prescriptive. In international law, hard law includes self-executing treaties or international agreements, as well as customary laws. These instruments result in legally enforceable commitments for countries states an ...


Ordinary law

An ordinary law is a normal law, generally distinguished from a constitutional law, organic law, or other similar law. Typically, ordinary laws are subordinate to constitutional and organic laws, and are more easily changed than constitutional or organic laws, though that should not be assumed to be the case in all jurisdictions. Ordinary laws often govern areas beyond the scope of constitutional or organic laws. Normally, in a democracy, an ordinary law must first obtain a simple majority of a congress, parliament, or other legislature, and then be signed into law by the representative of ...


Primary and secondary legislation

In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government. Primary legislation generally consists of statutes, also known as acts, that set out broad outlines and principles, but delegate specific authority to an executive branch to make more specific laws under the aegis of the principal act. The executive branch can then issue secondary legislation, creating legally ...


Secret law

Since about 2015 the branches of the United States federal government have accused one another of creating secret law. Journalists, scholars, and anti-secrecy activists have also made similar allegations. Scholarly analysis has shown that secret law is present in all three branches. One scholar, Professor Dakota Rudesill, recommends that the country affirmatively decide whether to tolerate secret law, and proposes principles for governing it, including: public law’s supremacy over secret law; no secret criminal law; public notification of creation of secret law; presumptive sunset and publ ...


Soft law

The term soft law refers to quasi-legal instruments which do not have any legally binding force, or whose binding force is somewhat weaker than the binding force of traditional law, often contrasted with soft law by being referred to as "hard law". Traditionally, the term "soft law" is associated with international law, although more recently it has been transferred to other branches of domestic law as well.


Temporary law

Temporary laws, temporary legislation or sunset legislation are laws whose duration is limited at the time of enactment. Temporary laws are often used to adapt for unusual or peculiar situations. Clauses limiting the duration of such laws are often called "sunset" clauses. Temporary laws are commonly given temporal validity by the inclusion of an expiration date at which the law ceases to be in effect unless it is extended. But a law can also acquire temporal status by stipulating that it only applies to a certain event. For example, only to the next election or only for victims of a named ...


Trigger law

In the United States, six states - Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Dakota, and South Dakota - have trigger laws that would automatically ban abortion in the first and second trimesters if the landmark case Roe v. Wade were overturned. Illinois formerly had a trigger law enacted in 1975, but repealed it in 2017. Also, nine states - Alabama, Arizona, Michigan, New Mexico, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin as well as the already mentioned Arkansas and Mississippi, still have their unenforced pre- Roe abortion bans on the lawbooks, which are not currently enforceable due ...


ⓘ Law by type

  • towns mistechko as urban - type settlement. According to a 1998 law of Belarus, there are three categories of urban - type settlement in the country: Urban
  • The law of California consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, and regulatory law as well as case law The California Codes form
  • most legitimate. One type of Universal Law is the Law of Logic which prohibits logical contradictions known as sophistry. The Law of Logic is based upon
  • Copyright law in Azerbaijan governs copyright in Azerbaijan. The status of copyright law and its protection is regulated by the Law of the Republic of
  • do and it is always possible for a law to be contradicted, restricted, or extended by future observations. A law can usually be formulated as one or
  • within the same tax year Under South African law living trusts are considered tax payers. Two types of tax apply to living trusts, namely income tax
  • the fact that the type - token relation in general of a homogenous text can be derived from the distribution of its types Heaps law means that as more
  • Intuitionistic type theory also known as constructive type theory, or Martin - Lof type theory is a type theory and an alternative foundation of mathematics
  • multiplied by a factor of four. The distributions of a wide variety of physical, biological, and man - made phenomena approximately follow a power law over a

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