ⓘ Health paradoxes


Australian paradox

The Australian Paradox is a term coined in 2011 to describe what its proponents say are diverging trends in sugar consumption and obesity rates in Australia. The term was first used in a 2011 study published in Nutrients by Professor Jennie Brand-Miller, in which she and co-author Dr Alan Barclay reported that, in Australia, "a substantial decline in refined sugars intake occurred over the same timeframe that obesity has increased." The "paradox" in its name refers to the fact that sugar consumption is often considered for example by Robert Lustig to be a significant contributor to rising ...


French paradox

The French paradox is a catchphrase first used in the late 1980s, that summarizes the apparently paradoxical epidemiological observation that French people have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, while having a diet relatively rich in saturated fats, in apparent contradiction to the widely held belief that the high consumption of such fats is a risk factor for CHD. The paradox is that if the thesis linking saturated fats to CHD is valid, the French ought to have a higher rate of CHD than comparable countries where the per capita consumption of such fats is lower. It has ...


Glucose paradox

The glucose paradox was the observation that the large amount of glycogen in the liver was not explained by the small amount of glucose absorbed. The explanation was that the majority of glycogen is made from a number of substances other than glucose. The glucose paradox was first formulated by biochemists J. Denis McGarry and Joseph Katz in 1984. The glucose paradox demonstrates the importance of the chemical compound lactate in the biochemical process of carbohydrate metabolism. The paradox is that the large amount of glycogen 10% found in the liver cannot be explained by the livers smal ...


Hispanic paradox

The Hispanic paradox, or Latino paradox, also known as the "epidemiologic paradox," refers to the epidemiological finding that Hispanic and Latino Americans tend to have health outcomes that "paradoxically" are comparable to, or in some cases better than, those of their U.S. non-Hispanic White counterparts, even though Hispanics have lower average income and education. The paradox usually refers in particular to low mortality among Latinos in the United States relative to non-Hispanic Whites. First coined the Hispanic Epidemiological Paradox in 1986 by Kyriakos Markides, the phenomenon is ...


Immigrant paradox

The immigrant paradox is that recent immigrants often outperform more established immigrants and non-immigrants on a number of health-, education-, and conduct- or crime-related outcomes, despite the numerous barriers they face to successful social integration. According to the UN, the number of first-generation immigrants worldwide is 244 million. These large-scale population changes worldwide have led many scholars, across fields, to study the acculturation and adjustment of immigrants to their new homes. Specifically, researchers have examined immigrant experiences as they pertain to ed ...


Israeli paradox

The Israeli paradox is a catchphrase, first used in 1996, to summarize the apparently paradoxical epidemiological observation that Israeli Jews have a relatively high incidence of coronary heart disease, despite having a diet relatively low in saturated fats, in apparent contradiction to the widely held belief that the high consumption of such fats is a risk factor for CHD. The paradox is that if the thesis linking saturated fats to CHD is valid, the Israelis ought to have a lower rate of CHD than comparable countries where the per capita consumption of such fats is higher. The observation ...


Low birth-weight paradox

The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers. It is an example of Simpsons paradox.


Mexican paradox

The Mexican paradox is the observation that Mexican people exhibit a surprisingly low incidence of low birth weight, contrary to what would be expected from their socioeconomic status. This appears as an outlier in graphs correlating SES with low-birth-weight rates. The medical causes of lower rates of low birth weights among birthing Mexican mothers has been called into question. The hispanic paradox refers to the same phenomenon observed across the populations of South and Central America, where Mexicans remain the healthier.


Mossman-Pacey paradox

The Mossman-Pacey paradox is an evolutionary irony in which certain actions often taken by men to improve their sexual attractiveness end up lowering their fertility. One of the most prevalent examples of this phenomenon is the use of anabolic steroids by some men particularly if they go to the gym. These steroids can help build larger muscles, but can also lead to side effects such as smaller testicles, erectile dysfunction, and lower sperm count. One of the main reasons for this is that anabolic steroids can stop the pituitary gland producing the hormones LH and FSH. It has been estimate ...


Obesity paradox

The obesity paradox is a medical hypothesis which holds that obesity may, counterintuitively, be protective and associated with greater survival in certain groups of people, such as very elderly individuals or those with certain chronic diseases. It further postulates that normal to low body mass index or normal values of cholesterol may be detrimental and associated with higher mortality in asymptomatic people.


Peto's paradox

Petos paradox is the observation, named after English statistician and epidemiologist Richard Peto, that at the species level, the incidence of cancer does not appear to correlate with the number of cells in an organism. For example, the incidence of cancer in humans is much higher than the incidence of cancer in whales. This is despite the fact that a whale has many more cells than a human. If the probability of carcinogenesis were constant across cells, one would expect whales to have a higher incidence of cancer than humans.


Pulsus paradoxus

Pulsus paradoxus, also paradoxic pulse or paradoxical pulse, is an abnormally large decrease in stroke volume, systolic blood pressure and pulse wave amplitude during inspiration. The normal fall in pressure is less than 10 mmHg. When the drop is more than 10 mmHg, it is referred to as pulsus paradoxus. Pulsus paradoxus is not related to pulse rate or heart rate and it is not a paradoxical rise in systolic pressure. The normal variation of blood pressure during breathing/respiration is a decline in blood pressure during inhalation and an increase during exhalation. Pulsus paradoxus is a si ...


ⓘ Health paradoxes

  • Health equity synonymous with health disparity refers to the study and causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different
  • The health effects of wine are mainly determined by its active ingredient alcohol. Some studies found that, when comparing people who consume alcohol
  • Men s health refers to a state of complete physical, mental, and social well - being, as experienced by men, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
  • prevention paradox is a problem encountered when governments or organisations attempt to introduce a large scale intervention to improve health Real - time
  • the friendship paradox in monitoring the infection in a social network. They found that using the friendship paradox to analyze the health of central friends
  • Australia has a highly developed health care structure, though because of its vast size, services are not evenly distributed. Health care is delivered in Australia
  • Immigrant health care in the United States refers to the collective systems in the United States that deliver health care services to immigrants. The term

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