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ⓘ Disability




                                               

Disability

A disability is any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities or interact with the world around them. These conditions, or impairments, may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or a combination of multiple factors. Impairments causing disability may be present from birth or occur during a persons lifetime. The World Health Organization proposes the following definition of disabilities: "Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem i ...

                                               

Bedridden

Being bedridden is a form of immobility that can present as the inability to move or even sit upright. It differs from bed-rest, a form of non-invasive treatment that is usually part of recovery or the limitation of activities. Some of the more serious consequences of being bedridden is the high risk of developing thrombosis and muscle wasting. Its meaning is derived from a middle English term from a 1300s past tense form of riding a bed.

                                               

Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes and cognitive impairment. Diabetes is due to eithe ...

                                               

Dignity of risk

Dignity of risk is the idea that self-determination and the right to take reasonable risks are essential for dignity and self esteem and so should not be impeded by excessively-cautious caregivers, concerned about their duty of care. The concept is applicable to adults who are under care such as elderly people, people living with disability, and people with mental health problems. It has also been applied to children, including those living with disabilities.

                                               

Disability abuse

Disability abuse is when a person with a disability is abused physically, financially, sexually and/or psychologically due to the person having a disability. Disability abuse has also been considered a hate crime. The abuse is not limited to those who are visibly disabled such as wheelchair-users or physically deformed such as those with a cleft lip but also those with learning disabilities or difficulties such as dyslexia and dysgraphia, major depressive disorder and other disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome and developmental coordination disorder. Abuse of the ...

                                               

Disability and poverty

The worlds poor are significantly more likely to have or incur a disability within their lifetime compared to more financially privileged populations. The rate of disability within impoverished nations is notably higher than that found in more developed countries. Since the early 2010s there has been growing research in support of an association between disability and poverty and of a cycle by which poverty and disability are mutually reinforcing. Physical, cognitive, mental, emotional, sensory, or developmental impairments independently or in tandem with one another may increase ones like ...

                                               

Disability and religion

The intersection of disability and religion concentrates on the manner in which disabled people are treated within religious communities, the religious texts of those religions, or the general input from religious discourse on matters relating to disability. Studies on the relationship between religion and disability vary widely, with some postulating the existence of ableism and others viewing religion as a primary medium through which to assist disabled people. Religious exhortation often prompts adherents to treat people with disabilities with deference, however when the disability cons ...

                                               

Disability benefits

Armed Forces Independence Payment is paid to former members of the armed forces who were left disabled after being injured while in the armed services after 6 April 2005. War Disablement Pension is paid to people who became disabled as a result of an injury or illness that occurred or was aggrovated as a result of serving for the armed services. The injury must have occurred before 6 April 2005.

                                               

Disability etiquette

Disability etiquette is a set of guidelines dealing specifically with how to approach a person with a disability. There is no consensus on when this phrase first came into use, although it most likely grew out of the Disability Rights Movement that began in the early 1970s. The concept may have started as a cynical play on existing rule sheets, written for audiences without a disability, that were seen as patronizing by civil rights activists.

                                               

Disability insurance

Disability Insurance, often called DI or disability income insurance, or income protection, is a form of insurance that insures the beneficiarys earned income against the risk that a disability creates a barrier for a worker to complete the core functions of their work. For example, the worker may suffer from an inability to maintain composure in the case of psychological disorders or an injury, illness or condition that causes physical impairment or incapacity to work. It encompasses paid sick leave, short-term disability benefits, and long-term disability benefits. Statistics show that i ...

                                               

Disability pretender

A disability pretender is subculture term meaning a person who behaves as if he or she were disabled. It may be classified as a type of factitious disorder or as a medical fetishism. One theory is that pretenders may be the "missing link" between devotees and wannabes, demonstrating an assumed continuum between those merely attracted to people with disabilities and those who actively wish to become disabled. Many wannabes use pretending as a way to appease the intense emotional pain related to having body integrity identity disorder. Pretending takes a variety of forms. Some chatroom users ...

                                               

Geography of disability

Geography of disability is a branch of Human Geography focusing on the disabled or impairs and their experience. Disability refers to individuals with physical and intellectual impairments. The difference between the disability and impairment is that disability is the restriction of the ability caused by the actual decrement of functioning, aka impairment, of the individual. The Geography of disability studies the experience of disabled people and examines the relationship between the disability and space, ranging from the accessibility, mobility and the landscape, in terms of socio-econom ...

                                               

Brian Glenney

Brian Glenney is an American Philosopher and Graffiti Artist most known for co-founding a street art project turned movement known as the Accessible Icon Project. The movement re-designed the International Symbol of Access to display an active, engaged image with focus on the person with disability." It was intended as a kind of radical statement,” says Elizabeth Guffey, author of Designing Disability: Symbols, Space, and Society and professor of art history at SUNY Purchase." The very oddity of it is people started taking it seriously as a new symbol, and it’s such a weird life that it’s ...

                                               

Maria Grzegorzewska

Maria Grzegorzewska was a Polish educator, who brought the special education movement to Poland. Born to a family from the Zmudz region, she was strongly influenced by her parents beliefs in humanitarianism. After attending clandestine schools to earn her basic education from Polish rather than Russian educators, she obtained her teaching credentials in Lithuania. She continued her education at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow and in 1913 joined her countrywoman, Jozefa Joteyko in Brussels to study at the International Paedological Faculty. When her studies in Belgium were interrupted ...

                                               

Impairment rating

An impairment rating is a percentage intended to represent the degree of an individuals impairment, which is a deviation away from ones normal health status and functionality. Impairment is distinct from disability. An individuals impairment rating is based on the restrictive impact of an impairment, whereas disability is broadly the consequences ones impairment. Impairment ratings given to an individual by different medical examiners are sometimes problematically inconsistent with each other.

                                               

Killing of disabled children in Uganda

In some parts of Uganda, disabled children are put to death. In traditional rituals, infant body parts are claimed to bring benefits. Those who continue these practices describe it as "mercy killing", meaning that the children are spared from enduring painful disabilities.

                                               

Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort

Kolcabas theory of comfort explains comfort as a fundamental need of all human beings for relief, ease, or transcendence arising from health care situations that are stressful. Comfort can enhance health-seeking behaviors for patients, family members, and nurses. The major concept within Katharine Kolcabas theory is the comfort. The other related concepts include caring, comfort measures, holistic care, health seeking behaviors, institutional integrity, and intervening variables. Kolcabas theory successfully addresses the four elements of nursing metaparadigm. Providing comfort in physical ...

                                               

Medical model of disability

The medical model of disability, or medical model, arose from the biomedical perception of disability. This model links a disability diagnosis to an individuals physical body. The model supposes that this disability may reduce the individuals quality of life and the aim is, with medical intervention, this disability will be diminished or corrected. The medical model focuses on curing or managing illness or disability. By extension, the medical model supposes a "compassionate" or just society invests resources in health care and related services in an attempt to cure or manage disabilities ...

                                               

Mental health

Mental health is the level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness. It is the state of someone who is "functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment". From the perspectives of positive psychology or of holism, mental health may include an individuals ability to enjoy life and to create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. According to the World Health Organization, mental health includes "subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, inter-generational dependence, and self ...

                                               

Near-sightedness

Near-sightedness, also known as short-sightedness and myopia, is an eye disorder where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina. This causes distant objects to be blurry while close objects appear normal. Other symptoms may include headaches and eye strain. Severe near-sightedness is associated with an increased risk of retinal detachment, cataracts, and glaucoma. The underlying cause is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include doing work that involves focusing on close objects, greater time spent indoors, and a family history of t ...

                                               

Normalization (people with disabilities)

"The normalization principle means making available to all people with disabilities patterns of life and conditions of everyday living which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances and ways of life or society." Normalization is a rigorous theory of human services that can be applied to disability services. Normalization theory arose in the early 1970s, towards the end of the institutionalisation period in the US; it is one of the strongest and long lasting integration theories for people with severe disabilities.

                                               

Old age

Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle. Terms and euphemisms include old people, the elderly, OAPs, seniors, senior citizens, older adults, and the elders. Elderly people often have limited regenerative abilities and are more susceptible to disease, syndromes, injuries and sickness than younger adults. The organic process of ageing is called senescence, the medical study of the aging process is called gerontology, and the study of diseases that afflict the elderly is called geriatrics. The elderly also f ...

                                               

Physical disability

A physical disability is a limitation on a persons physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and sleep disorders.

                                               

Presbyopia

Presbyopia is a condition associated with the aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects. Symptoms include difficulty reading small print, having to hold reading material farther away, headaches, and eyestrain. Different people will have different degrees of problems. Other types of refractive errors may exist at the same time as presbyopia. Presbyopia is a normal part of the aging process. It occurs due to hardening of the lens of the eye, causing the eye to focus light behind rather than on the retina when looking at close objects. ...

                                               

Sensory garden

A sensory garden is a self-contained garden area that allows visitors to enjoy a wide variety of sensory experiences. Sensory gardens are designed to provide opportunities to stimulate the senses, both individually and in combination, in ways that users may not usually encounter. Sensory gardens have a wide range of educational and recreational applications. They can be used in the education of special-needs students, including people with autism. As a form of horticultural therapy, they may be helpful in the care of people with dementia. Sensory gardens can be designed in such a way as to ...

                                               

Snoezelen

Snoezelen or controlled multisensory environment is a therapy for people with autism and other developmental disabilities, dementia or brain injury. It consists of placing the person in a soothing and stimulating environment, called the "Snoezelen room". These rooms are specially designed to deliver stimuli to various senses, using lighting effects, color, sounds, music, scents, etc. The combination of different materials on a wall may be explored using tactile senses, and the floor may be adjusted to stimulate the sense of balance. The person is usually accompanied by an aide or therapist ...

                                               

Social model of disability

The social model of disability identifies systemic barriers, derogatory attitudes, and social exclusion, which make it difficult or impossible for individuals with impairments to attain their valued functionings. The social model of disability diverges from the dominant medical model of disability, which is a functional analysis of the body as machine to be fixed in order to conform with normative values. While physical, sensory, intellectual, or psychological variations may cause individual functional limitation or impairments, these do not necessarily have to lead to disability unless so ...

                                               

Social role valorization

In psychology, education and social work practice, social role valorization is the name given to an analysis of human relationships and human services, formulated in 1983 by Wolf Wolfensberger, as the successor to his earlier formulation of the principle of normalization which is attributed to Nirje, Wolfensberger, and Bank-Mikkelsen worldwide. The theory is based on the idea that society tends to identify groups of people as fundamentally different, and of less value than everyone else. It catalogs the methods of this devaluation and analyzes its effects. It may be used by those seeking t ...

                                               

Spinal Cord Independence Measure

Outcome measures in rehabilitation medicine are tools used to evaluate the level of disability. They can be beneficial for physicians to judge the path of patients recovery, for researchers to compare different management protocols and for politicians in order to find the cost-effectiveness of their decisions. As an outcome measure specifically designed for spinal cord injury, the Spinal Cord Independence Measure is a tool that evaluates how safely, cheaply, and independently a patient can do basic activities of daily living.

                                               

Spoon theory

The spoon theory or spoon metaphor is a disability metaphor, a neologism used to explain the reduced amount of mental and physical energy available for activities of living and productive tasks that may result from disability or chronic illness. Spoons are a visual representation used as a unit of measure in order to quantify how much energy a person has throughout a given day. Each activity requires a given number of spoons, which will only be replaced as the person "recharges" through rest. A person who runs out of spoons has no choice but to rest until their spoons are replenished. This ...

                                               

Stimming

Self-stimulatory behaviour, also known as stimming and self-stimulation, is the repetition of physical movements, sounds, words, or moving objects. Such behaviours are common in people with developmental disabilities, and are particularly frequent in people on the autism spectrum. People diagnosed with sensory processing disorder are also known to potentially exhibit stimming behaviours. Stimming has been interpreted as a protective response to over-stimulation, in which people calm themselves by blocking less predictable environmental stimuli, to which they have a heightened sensitivity. ...

                                               

Supported living

Supported living or supportive living refers to a range of services and community living arrangements designed with individuals with disabilities and their families to support disabled citizens to attain or retain their independence or interdependence in their local communities. Supported living is recorded in the history of the NASDDDS, celebrating its 50th Anniversary. Community Supported Living Arrangements was a landmark federal multi-state demonstration to illustrate the federal role in community living in the US. Supported living is considered a core service or program of community l ...

                                               

Youth and disability

Worldwide, there are between 180 and 220 million youth with disabilities. Eighty percent of disabled youth live in developing countries, and therefore have even less access to education, health care, jobs and general rights Disabilities include physical, mental disabilities or mental illness. Many youth live normal and stable lives, however those with disabilities may experience more obstacles than those without due to potential limitations, those created by physical limitations and social limitations.

                                     

ⓘ Disability

  • Attraction to disability is a sexualised interest in the appearance, sensation and experience of disability It may extend from normal human sexuality
  • Invisible disabilities are disabilities that are not immediately apparent. For instance, some people with visual or auditory disabilities who do not wear
  • The Disability Rights Commission DRC was established by the British Labour government in 1999. At that time, the DRC was the UK s third equality commission
  • There are a variety of disabilities affecting cognitive ability. This is a broad concept encompassing various intellectual or cognitive deficits, including
  • Sexuality and disability is regarding the sexual behavior and practices of individuals with disabilities Individuals with disabilities have a range of
  • National Disability Employment Awareness Month was declared in 1988 by the United States Congress for the month of October to raise awareness of the employment
  • Disability fraud is the receipt of payment s intended for the disabled from a government agency or private insurance company by one who should not be
  • Disability rights and policy in Japan have seen drastic reforms since the 1960s when the lack of rights of the disabled at the time began to be recognised
  • The disability - adjusted life year DALY is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill - health, disability or
  • Disability Living Allowance DLA is a social security benefit in the United Kingdom paid to eligible claimants who have personal care and or mobility

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