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ⓘ Life




                                               

Life

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. Various forms of life exist, such as plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria. Biology is the science concerned with the study of life. There is currently no consensus regarding the definition of life. One popular definition is that organisms are open systems that maintain homeostasis, are compos ...

                                               

Biological organisation

Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a reductionistic approach. The traditional hierarchy, as detailed below, extends from atoms to biospheres. The higher levels of this scheme are often referred to as an ecological organization concept, or as the field, hierarchical ecology. Each level in the hierarchy represents an increase in organizational complexity, with each "object" being primarily composed of the previous levels basic unit. The basic principle behind the organization is the concept of emergence - the propertie ...

                                               

Carbon-based life

Carbon is a primary component of all known life on Earth, representing approximately 45–50% of all dry biomass. Carbon compounds occur naturally in great abundance on Earth. Complex biological molecules almost always consist of carbon atoms bonded with other elements, especially oxygen and hydrogen and frequently also nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Because it is lightweight and relatively small in size, carbon molecules are easy for enzymes to manipulate. It is frequently assumed in astrobiology that if life exists elsewhere in the Universe, it will also be carbon-based. Critics refer t ...

                                               

Chirality

Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science. The word chirality is derived from the Greek χειρ, "hand," a familiar chiral object. An object or a system is chiral if it is distinguishable from its mirror image; that is, it cannot be superposed onto it. Conversely, a mirror image of an achiral object, such as a sphere, cannot be distinguished from the object. A chiral object and its mirror image are called enantiomorphs Greek, "opposite forms" or, when referring to molecules, enantiomers. A non-chiral object is called achiral sometimes also amphichiral and c ...

                                               

Coleridge's theory of life

Romanticism grew largely out of an attempt to understand not just inert nature, but also vital nature. Romantic works in the realm of art and Romantic medicine were a response to the general failure of the application of method of inertial science to reveal the foundational laws and operant principles of vital nature. German romantic science and medicine sought to understand the nature of the life principle identified by John Hunter as distinct from matter itself via Johan Friedrich Blumenbachs Bildungstrieb and Romantic medicines Lebenskraft, as well as Roschlaubs development of the Bruno ...

                                               

Life extension

Life extension is the idea of extending the human lifespan, either modestly – through improvements in medicine – or dramatically by increasing the maximum lifespan beyond its generally settled limit of 125 years. The ability to achieve such dramatic changes, however, does not currently exist. Some researchers in this area, and "life extensionists", "immortalists" or "longevists" those who wish to achieve longer lives themselves, believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation, stem cells, regenerative medicine, molecular repair, gene therapy, pharmaceuticals, and organ replacement ...

                                               

Hiding Place (band)

The band comprised singer Paul McCallion, guitarists JayJay and Del Robertson Somerville, and Doug Smith, with Pitchshifter drummer Jason Bowld joining in 2004. The bands debut release was the At One Time or Another EP in 2004. They toured in support of InMe and released "What if the Truth Looks Clearer Empty" later that year. They toured with The Rasmus and opened for Metallica, and "Cruel Kindness" followed in November 2004. McCallion and Bowles were also part of the supergroup This Is Menace, along with members of Pitchshifter, Therapy?, Hundred Reasons, Funeral for a Friend and Carcass.

                                               

Homochirality

Homochirality is a uniformity of chirality, or handedness. Objects are chiral when they cannot be superposed on their mirror images. For example, the left and right hands of a human are approximately mirror images of each other but are not their own mirror images, so they are chiral. In biology, 19 of the 20 natural amino acids are homochiral, being L -chiral, while sugars are D -chiral. Homochirality can also refer to enantiopure substances in which all the constituents are the same enantiomer, but some sources discourage this use of the term. It is unclear whether homochirality has a pur ...

                                               

Living systems

Living systems are open self-organizing life forms that interact with their environment. These systems are maintained by flows of information, energy and matter. Some scientists have proposed in the last few decades that a general living systems theory is required to explain the nature of life. Such a general theory, arising out of the ecological and biological sciences, attempts to map general principles for how all living systems work. Instead of examining phenomena by attempting to break things down into components, a general living systems theory explores phenomena in terms of dynamic ...

                                               

Non-cellular life

Non-cellular life, or acellular life is life that exists without a cellular structure for at least part of its life cycle. Historically, most definitions of life postulated that a living organism must be composed of one or more cells, but this is no longer considered necessary, and modern criteria allow for forms of life based on other structural arrangements. The primary candidates for non-cellular life are viruses. A minority of biologists consider viruses to be living organisms, but most do not. Their primary objection is that no known viruses are capable of autonomous reproduction: the ...

                                               

Philosophy of life

There are at least two senses in which the term philosophy is used: a formal and an informal sense. In the formal sense, philosophy is an academic study of the fields of aesthetics, ethics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics, as well as social and political philosophy. Ones philosophy of life is philosophy in the informal sense, as a personal philosophy, whose focus is resolving the existential questions about the human condition. The term also refers to a specific conception of philosophizing as a way of life, endorsed by the German Lebensphilosophie movement whose main representative is Wi ...

                                               

Reverence for Life

The phrase Reverence for Life is a translation of the German phrase: Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben." These words came to Albert Schweitzer on a boat trip on the Ogooue River in French Equatorial Africa, while searching for a universal concept of ethics for our time. Schweitzer made the phrase the basic tenet of an ethical philosophy, which he developed and put into practice. He gave expression to its development in numerous books and publications during his life and also in manuscripts which have recently been published; the main work being his unfinished four-part Philosophy of Culture German: ...

                                               

The Seven Pillars of Life

The Seven Pillars of Life are the essential principles of life described by Daniel E. Koshland in 2002 in order to create a universal definition of life. One stated goal of this universal definition is to aid in understanding and identifying artificial and extraterrestrial life. The seven pillars are Program, Improvisation, Compartmentalization, Energy, Regeneration, Adaptability, and Seclusion. These can be abbreviated as PICERAS.

                                               

World riddle

The term world riddle or world-riddle has been associated, for over 100 years, with Friedrich Nietzsche and with the biologist-philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who, as a professor of zoology at the University of Jena, wrote the book Die Weltrathsel in 1895–1899, in modern spelling Die Weltratsel, with the English version published under the title The Riddle of the Universe, 1901. The term "world riddle" concerns the nature of the universe and the meaning of life. The question and answer of the World Riddle has also been examined as an inspiration or allegorical meaning within some musical compos ...