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ⓘ Mind



                                               

Mind

The mind is the set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, imagination, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory, which is housed in the brain. It is usually defined as the faculty of an entitys thoughts and consciousness. It holds the power of imagination, recognition, and appreciation, and is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions. There is a lengthy tradition in philosophy, religion, psychology, and cognitive science about what constitutes a mind and what are its distinguishing properties. One open question regarding the ...

                                               

Action theory (philosophy)

Action theory is an area in philosophy concerned with theories about the processes causing willful human bodily movements of a more or less complex kind. This area of thought involves epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, jurisprudence, and philosophy of mind, and has attracted the strong interest of philosophers ever since Aristotles Nicomachean Ethics. With the advent of psychology and later neuroscience, many theories of action are now subject to empirical testing. Philosophical action theory, or the philosophy of action, should not be confused with sociological theories of social action, ...

                                               

Altered state of consciousness

An altered state of consciousness, also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state. By 1892, the expression was in use in relation to hypnosis although an ongoing debate about hypnosis as an ASC based on modern definition exists. The next retrievable instance, by Dr Max Mailhouse from his 1904 presentation to conference, however, is unequivocally identified as such, as it was in relation to epilepsy, and is still used today. In academia, the expression was used as early as 1966 by Arnold M. Ludwig and brough ...

                                               

Anomalous experiences

Anomalous experiences, such as so-called benign hallucinations, may occur in a person in a state of good mental and physical health, even in the apparent absence of a transient trigger factor such as fatigue, intoxication or sensory deprivation. The evidence for this statement has been accumulating for more than a century. Studies of benign hallucinatory experiences go back to 1886 and the early work of the Society for Psychical Research, which suggested approximately 10% of the population had experienced at least one hallucinatory episode in the course of their life. More recent studies h ...

                                               

Aristotelianism

Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. This school of thought, in the modern sense of philosophy, covers existence, ethics, mind and related subjects. In Aristotles time, philosophy included natural philosophy, which preceded the advent of modern science during the Scientific Revolution. The works of Aristotle were initially defended by the members of the Peripatetic school and later on by the Neoplatonists, who produced many commentaries on Aristotles writings. In the Islamic Golden Age, Avicenna and Averroes translated ...

                                               

Centre for the Mind

                                               

Cognition

Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. Cognitive processes use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge. Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguis ...

                                               

Critical thinking

Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities as well as a commitment to overcome native egocentrism and sociocentrism.

                                               

Eudaimonia

Eudaimonia, sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" and "blessedness" have been proposed as more accurate translations. Etymologically, it consists of the words eu "good" and daimōn "spirit". It is a central concept in Aristotelian ethics and subsequent Hellenistic philosophy, along with the terms "aretē" most often translated as "virtue" or "excellence" and "phronesis" often translated as "practical or ethical wisdom". In Aristotles works, eudaimonia based on older Greek tradit ...

                                               

Geist

Geist is a German noun with a degree of importance in German philosophy. Its semantic field corresponds to English ghost, spirit, mind, intellect. Some English translators resort to using "spirit/mind" or "spirit to help convey the meaning of the term. Geist is also a central concept in Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegels 1807 The Phenomenology of Spirit Phanomenologie des Geistes. Notable compounds, all associated with Hegels view of world history of the late 18th century, include Weltgeist "world-spirit", Volksgeist "national spirit" and Zeitgeist "spirit of the age".

                                               

Introspection

Introspection is the examination of ones own conscious thoughts and feelings. In psychology, the process of introspection relies exclusively on observation of ones mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of ones soul. Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and self-discovery and is contrasted with external observation. Introspection generally provides a privileged access to ones own mental states, not mediated by other sources of knowledge, so that individual experience of the mind is unique. Introspection can determine any number of me ...

                                               

Mental operations

Mental operations are operations that affect mental contents. Initially, operations of reasoning have been the object of logic alone. Pierre Janet was one of the first to use the concept in psychology. Mental operations have been investigated at a developmental level by Jean Piaget, and from a psychometric perspective by J. P. Guilford. There is also a cognitive approach to the subject, as well as a systems view of it.

                                               

Mental state

A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a proposition. Several of these states are a combination of mental representations and propositional attitudes. There are several paradigmatic states of mind that an agent has: love, hate, pleasure and pain, and attitudes toward propositions such as: believing that, conceiving that, hoping and fearing that, etc.

                                               

Neurophilosophy

Neurophilosophy or philosophy of neuroscience is the interdisciplinary study of neuroscience and philosophy that explores the relevance of neuroscientific studies to the arguments traditionally categorized as philosophy of mind. The philosophy of neuroscience attempts to clarify neuroscientific methods and results using the conceptual rigor and methods of philosophy of science.

                                               

Noocenosis

A Noocenosis from Greek νόος - "mind, thought, perception, sense" and κοινός – "common, mutual, shared, joint" is an artificial biological community built upon a degraded ecosystem. A noocenosis is the result of structural improvements by man and differs from the original, evolutionarily constructed biological community. The concept noocenosis was first used in Russia in the 1970s by the ecologist Stanislav Semenovich Schwartz. The concept was, however, more fully developed in the 1990s by the ecologist Victor Vasilievich Petrashov. Academic use of the term noocenosis is still predominatel ...

                                               

Noogenesis

Noo, nous UK, US: – from the ancient Greek νόος, has synonyms in other languages 智慧 Chinese, is a term that currently encompasses the semantics: mind, intelligence, intellect, reason; wisdom; insight, intuition, thought, - in a single phenomenon. Noogenesis was first mentioned in the posthumously published in 1955 book The Phenomenon of Man by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, an anthropologist and philosopher, in a few places: "With and within the crisis of reflection, the next term in the series manifests itself. Psychogenesis has led to man. Now it effaces itself, relieved or absorbed by an ...

                                               

Noosphere

The noosphere is a philosophical concept developed and popularized by the French philosopher and Jesuit priest Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and the biogeochemist Vladimir Vernadsky. Vernadsky defined the noosphere as the new state of the biosphere and described as the planetary "sphere of reason". The noosphere represents the highest stage of biospheric development, its defining factor being the development of humankinds rational activities. The word is derived from the Greek νόος "mind", "reason" and σφαῖρα "sphere", in lexical analogy to "atmosphere" and "biosphere". The concept, however, ...

                                               

Oneironautics

Oneironautics refers to the ability to travel within a dream on a conscious basis. Such a traveler in a dream may be called an oneironaut.

                                               

Perception

Perception is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system. For example, vision involves light striking the retina of the eye; smell is mediated by odor molecules; and hearing involves pressure waves. Perception is not only the passive receipt of these signals, but its also shaped by the recipients learning, memory, expectation, and at ...

                                               

Personality

Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. While there is no generally agreed upon definition of personality, most theories focus on motivation and psychological interactions with ones environment. Trait-based personality theories, such as those defined by Raymond Cattell, define personality as the traits that predict a persons behavior. On the other hand, more behaviorally-based approaches define personality through learning and habits. Nevertheless, most theories view personalit ...

                                               

Primacy of mind

A belief in the primacy of mind is an ubiquitous element in the history of ideas. In this view the mind or soul is not only primary as an explanation of reality, but is the only conceivable explanation, as nothing so subtle and sublime as reason and morality could possibly emerge from matter and motion, the primary elements of scientific explanation. In his book Darwins Dangerous Idea, Daniel Dennett states that a central aspect of Judeo-Christian and Islamic cosmogony is that, in the beginning, there was "something with Mind - a cogitative Being,".

                                               

Psychonautics

Psychonautics refers both to a methodology for describing and explaining the subjective effects of altered states of consciousness, especially an important subgroup called holotropic states, including those induced by meditation or mind-altering substances, and to a research cabal in which the researcher voluntarily immerses themselves into an altered mental state in order to explore the accompanying experiences. The term has been applied diversely, to cover all activities by which altered states are induced and utilized for spiritual purposes or the exploration of the human condition, inc ...

                                               

Pure thought

Pure thought is an English translation of an expression originally attributed to Kant and Hegel. Their usage of the German counterpart revolved around the question of whether pure thought could exist without an object or some material. Today, more popular uses exist. That "Pure Thought" could existent and is part of the evidentiary change. The usage here is that pure thought is simply a process, another term for thought experiment.

                                               

Qualia

In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia are defined as individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. The term qualia derives from the Latin neuter plural form of the Latin adjective quālis meaning "of what sort" or "of what kind" in a specific instance, such as "what it is like to taste a specific apple, this particular apple now". Examples of qualia include the perceived sensation of pain of a headache, the taste of wine, as well as the redness of an evening sky. As qualitative characters of sensation, qualia stand in contrast to "propositional attitudes", where ...

                                               

Reason

Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic, and adapting or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans. Reason, or an aspect of it, is sometimes referred to as rationality. Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. The field of logic studies ways in which humans reason formally through argu ...

                                               

Soul

The soul, in many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal essence of a living being. Soul or psyche comprises the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc. Depending on the philosophical system, a soul can either be mortal or immortal. Greek philosophers, such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, understood that the soul ψυχή psūchê must have a logical faculty, the exercise of which was the most divine of human actions. At his defense trial, Socrates even summarized his teaching as nothi ...

                                               

Centre for the Mind

Allan Whitenack Snyder is the director of the Centre for the Mind at the University of Sydney, Australia where he also holds the 150th Anniversary Chair of Science and the Mind. He is a co-founder of Emotiv Systems and winner of the International Australia Prize in 1997 and the Marconi Prize in 2001 for his contributions to optical physics. Allan is also the Creator and Chairman of the What Makes a Champion? forum, an official Olympic cultural event first held at the Sydney 2000, then Beijing 2008 and forthcoming London 2012 Olympic Games. Nelson Mandela and John Howard opened the 2000 eve ...

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